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05. IKHTILAAF-E-FUQAHA KAY ASBAAB

IKHTILAAF-E-FUQAHA KAY ASBAAB.

“Ikhtilaaf” kisi cheez par muttafiq na honay ko kahtay hain, yaani aqwaal-o-af’aal mein dusron say alag raah ikhtiyar karna, 

aur yeh ikhtilaaf fitrat-e-insaani mein shaamil hai, jaisay tamaam bani now-e-insaan apni shakal-o-shabaahat aur rangat mein aik dusray say mukhtalif hain issi tarah apni zehani-o-aqali quwwat mein bhi mukhtalif hain,

chunancheh aaj tak fuqahaa-e-ummat mein jo bhi ikhtilaaf raunamah hota aa raha hai ya jo hamaishah hota rahay ga us kay pichhay yeh hi fitri jazbah kaar farma hai, agar is ikhtilaaf mein usool-o-zawaabit aur akhlaaq-o-aadaab ka lihaaz rakha jaye aur har mas’alay kay hall kay liye kitab-o-sunnat ki taraf hi rujoo  kiya jaye to us mein koi muzaaiqah nahi, lekin agar yeh hi ikhtilaaf mahaz ta’assub, taqleedi jumood aur maslaki taayeed-o-himaayat ki gharaz say ho to yaqeenan millat-e-islamiyah mein takhreeb-o-inteshaar par munattaj hoga,

Ahd-e-risaalat mein koi bhi ikhtilaaf maujood nahi tha kiyonkeh har ikhtilaaf mein raah-e-hidaayat dekhanay kay liye nabi kareem ﷺ khud maujood hotay thay albattah us kay baad bhi sahabah-o-taabi’een aur fuqahaa-o-ai’mmah  mein jis ikhtilaaf ka zuhoor huwa us kay baray asbaab hamaray ilam kay mutabiq 3 hain,

(1) Lughawi tafaawut,

(2) Usool-e-istinbaat,

(3) Tareeq-e-istinbaat,

Bit’tarteeb in teenon ki kuch tafseel hasb-e-zail hai:


(1) LUGHAWI TAFAAWUT: 


Is mein hasb-e-zail sooraten shaamil hain :

(1) Lafzi ishteraak :

Koi lafz-e-mushtarak baghair kisi qareenah kay ibaarat mein youn waaqi ho keh un mein say har ma’aana muraad liya ja sakta ho, jaisa keh Quran mein “lafz-e-qur’u” haiz aur tuhur ki ma’aani mein mushtarak hai aur baghair qareenah kay waaqi huwa hai is liye fuqaha kay darmiyan is mas’alay mein ikhtilaaf hai.

(2) Haqeeqat-o-majaaz :

baaz alfaaz haqeeqat-o-majaaz donon ka ihtemaal rakhtay hain is liye in kay madlool kay ta’ayyun mein baaz auqaat ikhtilaaf ho jata hai, jaisa keh “meezan” ka ma’aana haqeeqi taur par tarazoo hai, lekin majaazan adal-o-insaaf kay liye bhi bola jata hai.

(3) Umoom-o-khusoos :

Baaz kalimaat umoom-o-khusoos donon ka ihtemaal rakhtay huway ikhtilaaf ka baa’is ban jatay hain, jaisay keh aik aayat mein hai :

” وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الْأَسْمَاءَ كُلَّهَا ” ( البقرہ : 32 ) 

“Allah Ta’aala nay Aadam 

(?) ko tamaam naam sikha diye,

agar umoom muraad liya jaye to qayaamat tak  ki har cheez kay naam muraad hongay, aur agar khusoos saamnay rakhain to muraad Allah ta’aala kay naam bhi ho saktay hain, aur kaainaat ki mukhtalaf ashiyaa kay bhi ho saktay hain, jaisa keh mufassireen nay yeh wazaahat ki hai”.

(4) Seegha-e-amar-o-nahi ka hukam :

Baaz kay nazdeek seegha-e-amar wujoob kay liye aur baaz kay nazdeek Istehbaab kay liye iste’imaal hota hai,

Issi tarah baaz kay nazdeek seegha-e-nahi tahreem kay liye aur baaz kay nazdeek karaahat kay liye iste’imaal hota hai.


(2) USOOL-E-ISTINBAAT :


is ki tafseel hasb-e-zail hai.

(1) riwaayat :

(1) baaz auqaat aik mujtahid kisi riwaayat ko za’eef kahta hai lekin dusra ussi riwaayat ko sahih kahta hai, kiyonkeh pahlay ko woh riwaayat sahih, muttasil sanad kay sath nahi mili hoti lekin disray ko woh hi riwaayat sahih sanad kay sath pahunchi hoti hai, 

(2) kabhi kisi mujtahid ko koi aisi daleel mil jati hai jo kisi aam hukam kay liye takhsees, mutalq hukam kay liye taqyeed, ya nasakh ka faaidah day rahi hoti hai, lekin dusray ko aisi koi daleel nahi milti.

(3) basaa auqaat riwaayat kay ma’aani mein ikhtilaaf ho jata hai, masalan buyoo’u ki in aqsaam ki taabeer-o-tashreeh mein ” muzaabinah ” ” muhaaqilah “, ” muzaariat ” “mulaamish” aur “mukhabirah ” waghairah,

(4) ahnaaf Mash’hoor hadith ko mutawatir kay hukam mein samajhtay hain jabkaeh deegar fuqahaa is kay qaail nahi.

(5) aisi mursal hadith jis ko sahabi “.        ” aisay alfaaz say riwaayat karay baaz usay qabil-e-ihtejaaj  tasawwur kartay hain aur baaz rad kartay hain.

(2) aqwaal-e-sahabah :

sahabah kay ijtehaadi aqwaal ki haisiyat mein ikhtilaaf hai, ahnaaf usay mutlaq hujjat samajhtay hain jabkaeh shafi’eiyah us ka inkaar kartay hain, 

(3) Qiyaas :

baaz ahl-e-zaahir to usay mutlaqan hujjat hi nahi samajhtay jabkaeh jamhoor usay kitab-o-sunnat aur ijmaa kay baad ma’aakhaz-e-shari’at mantay hain.


(3) TAREEQ-E-ISTINBAAT.


yaqeenan kitab-o-sunnat ki baaz nusoos qat’ee-ud-dalalah aur baaz zanni-ud-dalalah hoti hain, choonkeh insaan fahm-o-faraasat kay darjaat mein baaham mukhtalaf hain, is liye zanni-ud-dalalah nusoos mein mukhtalif aaraa ka saamnay aana laazmi amarbl hai jaisa keh imam Ibn-e-qayyim ( رحمه الله ) nay ye hi wazaahat farmayi hai.

in asbaab kay bayaan say saabit huwa keh fuqaha ka ikhtilaaf mahaz fitri iste’idaad-o-salaahiyaton kay mukhtalif honay par mabni tha na keh zaati bunyadon par tha,

lihazah musalmaanon ko chahiye keh fuqaha kay is ijtehaadi no’eiyat kay ikhtilaaf ko maslaki giroh bandi, bahimi ta’assub-o-bughaz aur ifteraaq-o-inteshaar ka zariyah na banayen balakeh taqleedi jumood say nikal kar kitab-o-sunnat say masaail kay istinbaat ki jidd-o-jahad aur sa’ee ko furogh denay ki har mumkin koshish karen, yeh hi manshaa-e-ilahi hai aur yeh hi aaj ki zarurat hai.

wallah-ul-muwaffiq.

 

REFERENCE:
BOOK: Duraral Bahiyah “Imam Shawkaani” Fiqh-o-Hadeeth
Tahqeeq: Allamah Nasir Uddin Albani Rahimahullah
Urdu Tarjumah Tarteeb-o-Taleef by : Haafiz Imraan Ayub lahori.

 

 

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