Sections
< All Topics
Print

19. Zo Al Arhaam ki Waraasat

*Zul Arhaam*

 

[Zul arhaam mayiyat ke woh qareebi rishtedaar hain jo nah to sahib-e-faraz hain aur nah hi asba’h maslan khaala, maamu aur phoophi waghera.]

 

*Lughwi ma’ani:*

 

Arhaam, reham ki jama hai jis ke ma’ani maa ke pait mein woh jagah hai jahan bacha parwarish paata hai.

 

*Istilahi ma’ani:*

 

Zul arhaam mayiyat ke woh qareebi rishtedaar hain jo nah to sahib-e-faraz hain aur nah hi asba’h maslan khaala, maamu aur phoophi waghera.


*Zul-Arhaam ki tadaad:*


Mandarja zail waaris zul arhaam shumaar kiye jatay hain.

(1) Maiyat ki beti ki aulaad (neechay tak)

(2) Poti ki aulaad (neechay tak)

(3) Nana aur par nana waghera

(4) Daadi ka baap

(5) Naana ki maa (oopar tak)

(6) A’aini bhai ki beti aur is ki aulaad

(7) Al’lati bhai ki beti aur is ki aulaad

(8) A’aini behan ki aulaad

(9) Al’lati behan ki aulaad

(10) Akhyaafi bhai ki aulaad

(11) Akhyaafi behan ki aulaad

(12) A’aini bhai ke betay ki beti

(13) Al’lati bhai ke betay ki beti

(14) Maiyat ki phophi aur is ki aulaad

(15) Chacha ki beti aur is ki aulaad

(16) Akhyaafi chacha aur is ki aulaad

(17) Maamu aur is ki aulaad

(18) Khala aur is ki aulaad

(19) Baap ki phoophi

(20) Baap ki khaala

(21) Maiyat ke baap ka mamu aur is ki aulaad.


*Zul-Arhaam ki wirasat ki Sharoot:*


Zul-Arhaam ki wirasat ki do shartain hain.

 

1- Zul-Arhaam, ashaab-ul-farooz aur asba’h ki ghair mojoodgi mein waaris hotay hain masla mein agar koi sahib farz ho. to woh farz’an aur rida’an saari jaedaad le le ga. isi terhan agar masla mein un ke hamrah koi asba’h ho to woh bhi akela hi saari jaedaad le le ga. aur zo-al-Arhaam mahroom honge.

 

2- Agar kisi masla mein zul-Arhaam ke hamrah khaawand ya biwi mojood hon to unhen un ka hissa dainay ke baad jo baqi jaedaad bachay gi woh zo-al-arhaam len ge kyunkay khaawand aur biwi radd ke mustahiq nahi hain.

 


*Zo-al-arhaam ki waraasat:*


 

Shuru shuru mein zo-al-arhaam ki wiraasat ke baray mein fuqaha’a ke darmiyaan ikhtilaaf paaya jata tha. Imam Maalik aur imam Shafi(رحمہ اللہ ) ke nazdeek zo-al-arhaam waaris nahi bantay. maiyat ne agar koi jaedaad chorhi aur is ka koi sahib farz ya asba’h waris nahi hai to usay bait-ul-maal mein day diya jaye ga. Lekin chothi sadi hjri mein jab bait-ul-maal ke nizaam mein bad-intezami shuru ho gayi to malki aur Shafi’i ulama’a ne apne is qoul se rujo’o kar liya aur fatwa sadir kya ke bait-ul-maal ki bajaye zo-al-arhaam ko jaedaad di jaye, doosri taraf se Imam Abu Hanifa aur Imam Ahmed ke nazdeek agar maiyat ka koi waris sahib farz ya asba’h zindah nahi hai to jaedaad zo-al-arhaam ke darmiyaan taqseem ki jaye gi. is terhan sab fuqaha’a zo-al-arhaam ke waris honay par mutfiq ho gaye. is ittafaq ke bawajood zo-al-arhaam ke naseeb yani istehqaq ke baray mein fuqaha’a ke darmiyan ikhtilaaf paaya jata hai .


*Zo-ah-arhaam ki istehqaaq ke baray mein fuqaha’h ke teen mazhab paye jatay hain*


1- Ahal-ul-reham

2- Ahal-ul-tanzeel

3- Ahal-ul-qraabat

 

*Ahal-ul-reham :*

 

Is mazhab ke qaa’il hubaish-bin-Mubasher aur Nooh bin Duraaj thay. Jin ka koi maan’ne wala nahi hai kyunkay yeh mazhab Shaz tha aur ab matrooq hai. Un ka kehna tha ke zo-al-arhaam jis nou’o se bhi ho chahay maiyat ke qareeb ho ya baeed chahay muzakkar hon ya mo’uannas jaedaad un ke darmiyaan baraabar baraabar taqseem ki jaye gi. Kyun kay reham ki qaraabat ki wajah se woh barabar ke hissa daar honge .

 

*Ahal-ul-Tanzeel:*

 

Is mazhab ke maan’ne walay hanmbali, Shaafi’i aur maalki hain. woh kehte hain ke zo-al-arhaam ko un ke asal ki waraasat di jaye gi yani woh zo-al-arhaam ko un ke asal ki jagah par utaartay hain jin ke wastay se un ki maiyat se rishta daari hai. Maslan nawasi ( beti ki beti apni asal yani beti ki waraasat ki haqdaar ho gi. Is terhan bhateeji yani bhai ki beti, bhai ki waraasat ki haqdaar hogi. Lekin woh is qaida se mamu aur khaala ko kharij karte hain, woh kehte hain yeh maiyat ki maa ka hissa len gaye. Isi terhan phoophi aur akhiyaafi maiyat ke baap ka hissa lenge.


*Misaal :*

Aik aadmi faut ho gaya aur apni nawasi ( beti ki beti ) bhaanji ( yani behan ki beti ) aur a’llati bhai ki beti ko zindah chhorha.

*Hal*

Nawaasi ( beti ki beti ) ko beti ka hissa ( 1/2 ) miley ga aur a’ini behan ki beti asbah ma-al-ghair hai woh baqi le gi aur a’llati bhai ki beti mahroom hai. Kyun kay un ke asal waris ( beti, a’eini behan aur a’llati bhai )

 

2

1 Beti ki beti 1/2

1 Aini behan ki beti ع

X A’llati bhai ki beti م

 

hain asal masla ( 2 ) hai. Nawaasi ko ( 1 ) hissa mila, aur a’ini behan ki beti ko baqi ( 1 ) hissa mila aur a’llati bhai ki beti mahroom hai.


*Misaal:*

Aik aadmi apni beti ki beti, bhai ki beti aur chacha ki beti ko zindah chorh kar faut ho gaya .

 

Hal :

 

Is misaal mein un ke asal waris beti, bhai aur chacha hain. Beti ko ( 7 ) miley ga aur baqi hissa ka bhai batoor-e-asba’h waris hai aur bacha mahroom hai chunanchay waraasat beti ki beti aur bhai ki beti ke darmiyaan aadhi aadhi taqseem hogi.


*Misaal :*

 

1 shakhs apni khaala aur phupho ko zindah chorh kar faut ho gaya.

 

Hal :

 

Is misaal mein khaala maiyat ki maa ke hissay ki waaris hogi aur phophi maiyat ke baap ke naseeb ki waris hogi. chunanchay khaala ( 1 ) le gi. aur baqi ( 2 ) phoophi legi. Asal masla ( 6 ) hai khaala ko ( 2 ) hissay miley aur phoophi ko baqi ( 4 ) hissay miley.

 


 

Agar zo-al-arhaam aik hi darja ke hon aur un ka maiyat se talluq bhi aik hi vaastay se ho to jaedad ki taqseem ke waqt muzakkar aur mo’annas mein koi farq nahi hoga. Balkay un sab ko barabar barabar hissa diya jaye ga. Maslan 1 shakhs faut ho gaya aur teen nawaasay aur aik nawasi ko zindah chorhi. ( Yani teen beti ke betay aur aik beti ki beti ) un ke ray’oos ki tadaad chaar hai lehaza asal masla ( 4 ) hai har aik ko ( 1 ) hissa miley ga.

 

*Note 2:*

 

agar zo-al-arhaam ke hamrah khaawand ya biwi mojood ho to nawasa aur nawasi ki mojoodgi mein khawand aur biwi ko un ka kaamil hissa miley ga. Maslan 1 shakhs faut ho gaya aur apni biwi aur nawasi ko zindah chorha. Is misaal mein biwi ko is ka kaamil hissa ( 1/4 ) miley ga aur baqi ( 3/4 ) nawasi farz’an aur ridd’an le gayi. Kyun kay biwi radd ki mustahiq nahi hoti .


*Ahal-ul-qaraabat:*


 

Is mazhab ke dawaydaar Ahnaaf hain. Un ko ahal-e-qaraabat is liye kehte hain ke yeh zo-al-arhaam ki waraasat mein maiyat ke sath qurb darja par a’etmaad karte hain. Jo maiyat ke ziyada qareeb hoga woh waaris hoga aur jo maiyat se ba’eed hai woh waarsat se mehjoob hoga. Un ke haan zo-al-arhaam ke tarteeb Alasba’h-bin-nafas ki tarteeb ki terhan hai agar woh sab se aik hi darja ke hon to (للذكر مثْل حظ الانثیین ) ke qaida ki roo se zakar ko do hissay aur mo’annas ko aik hissay miley ga. Maslan aik aadmi apna nawasa ( beti ka beta ) aur nawasi ( beti ki beti ) ko zindah chorh kar faut ho gaya. Un ke ray’oos ki tadaad ( 3 ) asal masla hai. Nawasa ko ( 2 ) hissay aur nawasi ko ( 1 ) hissa miley ga.


*Ahal-ul-qaraabat ke nazdeek zo-al-arham ke darjay:*


 

Ahal-ul-qaraabat zo-al-rhaam ko asba’-bin-nafs ki terhan chaar darjon mein taqseem karte hain, pehlay darja ki mojoodgi mein dosray darja walay waaris nahi hotay, doosray darja ki mojoodgi mein teesray darja walay aur teesray darja walon ki mojoodgi mein chouthay darja walay waaris nahi hotay.

Un ki tarteeb darj zail hai.

1- Al-banwat’o: Is se muraad beti ki olaad aur poti ki aulaad hain.

2- Al-abwat’o: Is se muraad jad-e- fasid yani nana aur padhnana aur daadi ka baap aur jada’h-e-fasida’h yani nana ki maa aur dadi ke baap ki maa waghera hain.

3- Al-ikhwat’o: In se muraad Aini aur a’llati bhai ki beti. isi terhan Aini aur a’llati behnoon ki aulaad. aur ikhiyaafi bhai aur akhiyafi behan ki aulaad, Aini aur a’llati bhai ke beton ki betiyan waghera .

 

REFERENCE:
Book: “Islam Ka Qanoon-e-Warasaat”
By Salah Uddin Haider Lakhwi.

 

 

Table of Contents