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25. JUNG-E-AHZAB OR KHANDAQ [BATTLE OF AHZAB OR TRENCH]:

KHANDAQ YA AHEZAB KI LARAEE

ZI QAADA PAANCH (5) HIJRI:

Banu Nazir medina se nikalne ko tou nikalgae magar khaiber pohanchkar unho ne apni saazishon ka jaal saare mulk arab me phela diya- Inke raeeson ne makkah jaakar quraish ko tayyar kiya- Qabilah Ghatafan ko khaiber ki adhi pedawar ka lalach dilakar apne saath milaya, Bani Asad inke haleef the, wo bhi uthe- Gharz sab milkar dus hazar(10,000) ki bhari fauj medine ki simt rawana hui. 

    Nabi kareem(ﷺ ) ko jab iska pata chala tou musalmaanon ne mashwerah kiya- Musalmaanon ko Uhad ki laraee ka tajruba hochuka tha – Hazrat Suleman faarsi(رضی اللہ عنہ ) chunkeh Iran ke the isiliye Iran ke junggee tareeqon se  kuch waqif the- unho ne rai di keh sheher ke teen rukh makanon aur Nakhlistanon se ghire hue hain- sirf aik tarf khula hai, Udhar khandaq(Gharha) khodli jae, taake dushmaan is simt se sheher me ghus na paen- ye rai sabne maanli- Aap(ﷺ ) teen hazar(3,000) musalmaanon ke sath bahar nikle aur khandaq khodne ki tayari shuru kardi- Teen hazar mutabarrak hathon ne bees din me ye kaam poora kiya aur is tarha poora kiya keh khud Allah ke Rasool Mohammad (ﷺ ) bhi inme aik aam mazdoor ki tarha kaam karrahe the- Kae kae din faaqe se ghuzare the- Ispar Islam ke Shaidaon ka josh thanda nahi hota tha- Haathon se mithi khodte aur pethon par usko laadkar phenkte the aur awaz me awaz milakar ye sher gaate the: 

“Ham hain jinho ne Muhammad(ﷺ ) ke hath par baet ki hai keh jab tak jaan mein jaan hai ham Allah ki raah mein larhte jaenge.”

Dushman ab qareeb agaya tha- iske khareeb aane ki khabar sunsunkar buzdil munafiqon ke hosh urhe jaarahe the- Jhoote bahane karke apne gharon ko loot rahe the- yahud ka ab sirf tesra qabilah Banu Quraiza medina ke paas raheta tha- Iski rawish saaf na thi isiliye admiyon ka dasta unki dekh bhaal ke liye alag kardiya gaya tha.

Banu Qurayza ab tak khulkar samne nahi ae the- Bani Nazir ka yahudi sardar Hayi bin akhtaab jo ab khaiber jaa basa tha dushmaanon ki fauj ke sath aya tha- Isne Bani Qurayza ke sardar ko jo musalmaanon se muaheda torne par isliye aamadah nahi horaha tha keh ye bahar ke log tou chale jaenge phir musalmaanon ko akele hamse nipatna parhega, ye kehekar milaliya keh mein is waqt Muhammad(ﷺ ) ke khilaf saare arab ko uthakar laya hun- Inki taqat ko hamesha ke liye khatam kardene ka mouqa phir isse bahetar hath nahi aega- Is daleel se lachaar hokar wo bhi dushmaanon se milgaya aur Hayyi ne isko yaqeen dilaya keh  agar Quraish aur Ghatafan tumko be yaaro madadgaar chorke chale jaenge tou ham tumhara sath denge.

Kuffar bees(20) din tak medina ke gird ghera dale parhe rahe aur sheher par hamla karne ki koi raah nahi paate the – aik jagah khandaq ki chauraee kum thi – aik din unho ne barhi tayari karke usi rukh par hamla karna chaha- Umro bin Wadd jo Quraish ka sabse barha bahadur tha- Ghora kudakar us par aagaya- idhar se zulfiqar wala hath barha aur aik hi war mein talwaar shaane tak utar ae- Hazrat Ali(رضی اللہ عنہ ) ne Allahu Akbar ka naara maara aur fatah ka ilaan hogaya.

     Hamle ka ye din barha saqt ghuzra- Dushman har tarf se teer aur pathar barsa rahe the – Musalmaan orten jis qileh mein mehfooz theen wo Bani qurayza ke paas tha- Bani qurayza ne ye dekh kar keh musalmaan tou idhar phanse hain, idhar is khaali qilah par qabza karliya jae- Aik yahudi qilah ke phantak par pohanchuka tha keh Hazrat Zubair(رضی اللہ عنہ ) kj maa Safiya(رضی اللہ عنہا ) ne jo Aap(ﷺ ) ki phupi thi aage barhkar uska kaam tamam kardiya aur uska sar katkar maidan mein phenkdiya- Ye dekh kar Bani Qurayza  samjhe keh Qilah mein bhi kuch fauj hai, isisliye udhar hemat na ki.

Mahasara jitna tol pakarta jaata tha dushmaanon ka mail milap apus mein kam hota jaata tha- Ghatafan ka qabilah medine ki kuch pedawar saalana lekar lautne par aamadah tha- iske aik raees ne jo dar pardah musalmaan hochuke the, magar unka musalmaan hona abhi sabko maloom na tha, quraish aur yahud se jaakar alag alag aisi baten kiye jisse dono mein phoot pargae- Allah ka shukar ke unhi dino mein aik raat ko aisi tez aandhi chali keh dushmaanon ke khaimon ke rassiya ukar ukar gaen. Khane ki handiya chulon par ulat ulat jaati theen- Sardi mein hawa ki is tez barh ne bhi kuffar ke dil kapkapa diye.

In sab baton ne mil jul kar Saathi faujon(Ahezab) ke paou ukhar diye- Bani Qurayzah unka sath chorkar apne qilon mein chalegae . Ghatfan bhi rawana hogaye. Ye dekh kar Quraish bhi nachaar mahasra chor kar chale gae aur medina ka kinara bees baees din tak ghubbar mein att kar phir saaf parhgaya.

REFERENCE:
BOOK: “RAHEMAT-E-ALAM”
BY ALLAMAH SAYYED SULEMAN NADWI(رحمه الله)
21 :- Seerat E Nabwee Sallallahu’alaihi’wasallam Jung E Khandaq by Shk Maqsood Ul Hassan Faizi Hafizahullah.

The Battle of the Trench

Abu Sufyan had left Uhud with the promise of another military encounter the following year, and with the arrival of Sha’ban 4 A.H., the Prophet (ﷺ ) pre-empted his adversary in a march toward the battlefield. He camped at Badr, where he waited eight days for Abu Sufyan. He had with him a force consisting of 1500 soldiers and 10 horses. Ali bin Abu Talib (رضی اللہ عنہ ) was the standard bearer, while the administration of Madinah was handed over to Abdullah Rawaha (رضی اللہ عنہ ).

Abu Sufyan also set out with 2000 soldiers, including 50 cavalrymen, but from the start he appeared to be lacking fire. Upon arriving at the venue he remarked to his men, “Battle is suitable when there is freshness and greenery throughout so that the animals can graze and we can also drink milk. But now as there is drought everywhere, I am going back. You people should follow me.” Abu Sufyan’s entire army seemed to share his sentiments and tamely marched back without meeting the enemy.

The Muslims, meanwhile, stayed on at Badr and carried out a number of business transactions. They sold their goods and made handsome profits. The Quraysh had retreated without drawing a single sword, so the Muslims returned with their military reputation in high standing. In Rabi’ Al-Awwal that same year the Prophet (ﷺ )  launched a punitive attack on a group of bandits at Dumat Al Jandal. At last all the enemies were subdued, and there was peace for an entire year, a year that the Prophet (ﷺ ) was able to spend consolidating the faith and teaching his followers.

The Battle of the Trench

After the expedition against Banu Nadir and the meek departure of the Quraysh from Badr, a year and a half went by without any disturbances. It seemed that the Muslims were finally free to spread their religion and bring about changes in their environment and daily lives, but the idyll was soon to be disrupted.

The exiled Jews had consolidated their base at Khaybar, and having done so they began to dream of vengeance. Realising the need to rally as much manpower as possible, they went about seeking allies against the Muslims. Some biographers say that twenty chieftains and leaders of Khaybar Jews went to the Quraysh pledging support for a renewed military campaign. When the Quraysh agreed, the Jewish delegation contacted Banu Ghatfan, and they also gave their consent. More and more clans were roped in, and the plan was that each of them should move towards Madinah simultaneously.

Digging the trench

When the news of the coalition reached Madinah, the Prophet (ﷺ ) conferred with his Companions as to strategy. The Muslims being so heavily outnumbered, it was imperative that they come up with an impenetrable defence. Salman Al-Farsi advised that the Muslims should dig a trench to keep the enemy away, and everyone approved of the suggestion.

Madinah was naturally fortified on three fronts, with volcanic plains and granite hills to the east, west and south; the city was exposed only on the north, from where the enemy forces could launch an assault. Therefore, the Prophet (ﷺ ) chose to fortify that front. He marked the narrowest spot stretching between the east and west and covering a distance of about one mile. Both belts were connected at this spot by the trench. In the west, the trench began from the north of the Sal’a hills and joined the end of the easterly belt at Shaykhayn.

The Prophet (ﷺ ) divided his men into units of ten with each responsible for diffing forty cubits. He himself participated in the task of digging the trench and carrying the loads of earth. It was a massive undertaking, and the Muslims worked steadily. Their morale soared as they relied on their faith in Allah and their devotion to His Prophet (ﷺ ) for moral sustenance. The Companions sang praises of Allah and the Prophet joined in. When the Prophet (ﷺ ) sang the Companions responded. They bore with quiet heroism the rigorous hardships before them, particularly the biting cold and gnawing hunger. A handful of barley was procured and cooked in rancid, foul smelling fat. Swallowing the food was a challenge in itself.

Once a man went to the Prophet (ﷺ ) complaining of debilitating hunger. As proof, each showed him a slab of stone tied to his belly to stave off the hunger pangs. The Prophet (ﷺ ) lifted his shirt. Tied to his abdomen were two slabs of stone.

The pagans had clamoured for miracles to confirm the divine nature of the Prophet’s (ﷺ ) message. Allah had sent them signs that they ignored. During the excavation of the trench, Allah sent the Muslims several signs of His grace, signs that increased their faith and sustained them through adversity.

On one occasion, Jabir bin Abdullah could not bear to see the Prophet assailed by severe hunger. He slaughtered a ewe, and his wife ground about 2 ½ kilograms of barley. He then went to the Prophet (ﷺ ) and discretely invited him and a few of the Prophet’s (ﷺ ) Companions. The Prophet (ﷺ ) accepted the invitation, but brought everyone along – all one thousand of them. Everyone ate until he was full, but the pot remained replete and the bread continued to bake unchecked.

Similarly, once, the sister of Nu’man bin Bashir took a handful of dates for her father and maternal uncle. The Prophet (ﷺ ) took the dates and scattered them on a cloth. He then called all the men as they worked away from the trench. Each of them ate to his fill and left, but the dates kept multiplying and could barely be contained within the cloth.

The soil the men encountered was rocky and obdurate. Jabir and his group struck a particularly rocky patch that failed all their efforts. The problem was brought to the notice of the Prophet (ﷺ ), and he struck it with his pick, it crumbled into a mound of pliant sand.

Other obstacles became oracles with Allah’s grace. Baraa and his unit came across a large rock. The Prophet (ﷺ ) knelt and said Bismillah before he used his pick. A piece of the rock came loose with a light emerging from it. The Prophet (ﷺ ) said, “Allahu Akbar! The keys of Syria have been given to me, and right now I see its red castle.”

The Prophet (ﷺ ) then struck a second blow with his pick and received the tidings of the imminent victory over Persia; the last blow signified the conquest of Yemen. In this way the entire rock was demolished, with each blow bringing the Muslims hope.

Across the trench

While the Muslims concentrated on defence, the Quraysh and their followers arrived with an army of 4000 men, 300 horses and 1000 camels. Abu Suryan rode proudly as the commander-inchief of the allied forces and their standard bearer was Uthman bin Talha Abdari. They camped at a spot between Jarf and Zahhaba. Opening another front, Banu Ghatfan and their 6000 followers, the men of Najid, pitched camp at the end of the Naqmi valley in the foothills of Mount Uhud. The arrival of two large armies so close to the walls of Madinah posed an enormous threat to the Muslims. Allah mentions the mammoth military coalition in Surah Al-Ahzaab:

“Behold! They marched upon you from above and below, and then your eyes spun around and your hearts leapt to your throats. You began to doubt Allah’s plan, yet in this was a trial for the believers and an immense jolt.” (33: 10-11)

But Allah Almighty kept the believers firm on that occasion. He says: “When the believers saw the confederate forces, they said: “This is what Allah and His Messenger promised us, and Allah and His Messenger have told us the truth.” And it only increased their faith and their submission to Allah.” (33: 22)

However, the Hypocrites among the Muslims were fearful and querulous. They said: “Allah and His Messenger have promised us nothing but delusions.” (33: 12)

Once again the Prophet (ﷺ ) appointed Umm Maktoom caretaker of Madinah and sent the women and children to take shelter in forts. He then set out with 3000 men and fortified his troops, keeping their backs to Mount Sal’a. In front was the trench that stood between the Muslims and unbelievers.

The Pagans arrogantly advanced toward Madinah and the Muslims. As they approached, they caught sight of the trench and stopped in confusion.

“A novel device, a wily ruse!” Abu Sufyan exclaimed in amazement. “This trick is totally unknown to the Arabs.” Overwhelmed with fury, the pagans set about trying to find a point where they could cross the trench, but the Muslim archers kept them at bay. A hail of arrows showered the pagans so that they could neither leap across the trench not fill it with earth.

The Quraysh had no alternative way to lay siege to Madinah. Every morning they came out and attempted to cross the trench while the Muslims guarded every inch of the border and greeted them with arrows and stones. The polytheists made several fruitless attempts to cross the trench and spent days huddled together trying to devise ways to launch their assault. The Muslims for their part were equally determined to make them give up. So intent were they in protecting their lines that the Prophet (ﷺ ) and his Companions missed several prayers, and offered them late around or after sunset, for at that point the “prayer in times of fear” (Salaah Al-Khauf) had not yet been ordained upon the Muslims.

Finally, one day a party of the pagan cavalry comprising Amr bin Abdu Wudd, Ikrama bin Abi Jahl, Dharar bin Khattab and a few others, managed to vault over the trench at a narrow spot, while their horses pranced around between the trench and Mount Sal’a. From another side Ali sprang forward along with a few Muslims, and by capturing the point of entry they cut off the pagans’ route of escape. Amr bin Abdu Wudd, a ruthless and fearsome warrior, challenged Ali to combat. Ali provoked Amr’s anger with his taunts, and he alighted from his horse. The two adversaries fought and jostled, thrust and parried, but ultimately Ali put Amr to the sword.

The rest of the polytheists darted back to their horses. They were so disconcerted that Ikrama left his lance trying to flee, and Naufal bin Abdullah fell into the trench and was put to death by the Muslims. At the end of the skirmish, ten pagans and six Muslims lay dead.

An arrow hit Sa’d bin Mu’dah and his jugular vein was severed, but miraculously he survived his injury. He had prayed to Allah to preserve his life only if the decisive battle against the Quraysh was yet to be fought. His other supplication had been to stay alive to see the destruction of Banu Quraydha, and as we shall see, his prayer was answered.

REFERENCE:
BOOK: WHEN THE MOON SPLIT FINAL.
Compiled by Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri
Edited and Translated by Tabassum Siraj – Michael Richardson Badr Azimabadi

خندق یا احزاب کی لڑائی

ذی قعده ۵ ہجری :

بنونضیر مدینہ سے نکلنے کو تو نکل گئے مگر خیبر پہنچ کر انہوں نے اپنی سازشوں کا جال سارے ملک عرب میں پھیلا دیا ۔ ان کے رئیسوں نے مکہ جا کر قریش کو تیار کیا ۔ قبیلہ غطفان کو خیبر کی آ دھی پیداوار کا لالچ دلا کر اپنے ساتھ ملایا ، بنی اسد ان کے حلیف تھے ، وہ بھی اٹھے۔غرض سب ملا کر دس ہزار کی بھاری فوج مدینہ کی سمت روانہ ہوئی ۔

آنحضرت ﷺ کو جب اس کا پتا چلا تو مسلمانوں نے مشورہ کیا ۔ مسلمانوں کو احد کی لڑائی کا تجربہ ہو چکا تھا ۔ حضرت سلیمان فارسی رضی اللہ عنہ چونکہ ایران کے تھے اس لیے ایران کے جنگی طریقوں سے کچھ واقف تھے ، انہوں نے رائے دی کہ شہر کے تین رخ مکانوں اور نخلستانوں سے گھرے ہوۓ ہیں۔ صرف ایک طرف کھلا ہوا ہے ، ادھر خندق* (گڑھا) کھود لی جاۓ ، تا کہ دشمن اس سمت سے شہر میں گھسنے نہ پائیں ۔ یہ راۓ سب نے مان لی ۔ آ نحضرت ﷺ تین ہزار مسلمانوں کے ساتھ باہر نکلے اور خندق کھود نے کی تیاری شروع کر دی ۔ تین ہزار متبرک ہاتھوں نے بیس دن میں یہ کام پورا کیا اور اس طرح پورا کیا کہ خود اللہ کا رسول بھی ان میں ایک عام مزدور کی طرح کام کر رہا تھا ۔ کئی کئی دن فاقے سے گزارے تھے ۔ اس پر اسلام کے شیدائیوں کا جوش ٹھنڈا نہیں ہوتا تھا ۔ ہاتھوں سے مٹی کھود تے اور پیٹھوں پر اس کو لاد لاد کر پھینکتے تھے اور آواز میں آواز ملا کر یہ شعر گاتے تھے :

”ہم ہیں جنہوں نے محمد‌ ﷺ کے‌ ہاتھ پر بیعت کی ہے کہ جب تک جان میں‌ جان ہے ہم اللہ کی راہ میں لڑتے جائیں گے۔“

دشمن اب قریب آ گیا تھا۔اس کے قریب آنے کی خبر سن سن کر بزدل منافقوں کے ہوش اڑے جا رہے تھے۔ جھوٹے بہانے کر کے اپنے گھروں کو لوٹ رہے تھے ۔ یہود کا اب صرف ایک تیسرا قبیلہ بنوقریظہ مدینہ کے پاس رہتا تھا ۔ اس کی روش صاف نہ تھی اس لیے دو  آدمیوں کا دستہ ان کی دیکھ بھال کے لیے الگ کر دیا گیا تھا۔

بنوقریظہ اب تک کھل کر سامنے نہیں آۓ تھے۔ بنی نضیر کا یہودی سردار حی بن اخطب جو اب خیبر جا بسا تھا دشمنوں کی فوج کے ساتھ آیا تھا۔ اس نے بنوقریظہ کے سردار کو جو مسلمانوں سے معاہدہ توڑنے پر اس لیے آمادہ نہیں ہور ہا تھا کہ یہ باہر کے لوگ تو چلے جائیں گے پھر مسلمانوں کو اکیلے ہم سے نپٹنا پڑے گا ، یہ کہہ کر ملا لیا کہ میں اس وقت محمد ﷺ کے خلاف سارے عرب کو اٹھا کر لایا ہوں۔ان کی طاقت کو ہمیشہ کے لیے ختم کر دینے کا موقع پھر اس سے بہتر ہاتھ نہیں آئے گا۔اس دلیل سے لا چار ہو کر وہ بھی دشمنوں سے مل گیا اور حي نے اس کو یقین دلایا کہ اگر قریش اور غطفان تم کو بے یار و مددگار چھوڑ کر چلے جائیں گے تو ہم تمہارا ساتھ دیں گے۔

کفار بیںس دن تک مدینے کے گرد گھیرا ڈالے پڑے رہے اور شہر پر حملہ کرنے کی کوئی راہ نہیں پاتے تھے۔ایک جگہ خندق کی چوڑائی کم تھی ۔ ایک دن انہوں نے بڑی تیاری کر کے اس رخ پر حملہ کر نا چاہا ۔ عمرو بن وُدّ جو قریش کا سب سے بڑا بہادر تھا۔گھوڑا کودا کر اس پار آ گیا۔ ادھر سے ذوالفقار والا ہاتھ بڑھا اور ایک ہی وار میں تلوار شانے تک اتر آئی۔حضرت علی رضی اللّٰہ عنہ نے اللہ اکبر کا نعرہ مارا اور فتح کا اعلان ہو گیا۔

حملے کا یہ دن بڑا سخت گزرا۔دشمن ہر طرف سے تیر اور پتھر برسا رہے تھے۔مسلمان عورتیں جس قلعہ میں محفوظ تھیں وہ بنی قریظہ کے پاس تھا۔ بنوقریظہ نے یہ دیکھ کر کہ مسلمان تو ادھر پھنسے ہیں ، ادھر اس خالی قلعہ پر قبضہ کر لیا جائے ۔ ایک یہودی قلعے کے پھاٹک پر پہنچ چکا تھا کہ حضرت زبیر رضی اللہ عنہ کی ماں صفیہ رضی اللہ عنہا نے جو آنحضرت ﷺ کی پھوپھی تھیں آگے بڑھ کر اس کا کام تمام کر دیا اور اس کا سر کاٹ کر میدان میں پھینک دیا۔یہ دیکھ کر بنی قریظہ سمجھے کہ قلعہ میں بھی کچھ فوج ہے، اس لیے ادھر ہمت نہ کی۔

محاصرہ جتنا طول پکڑتا جا تا تھا دشمنوں کا میل ملاپ آپس میں کم ہو جا تا تھا ۔ غطفان کا قبیلہ مدینے کی کچھ پیداوار سالانہ لے کر لوٹنے پر آمادہ تھا ۔ اس کے ایک رئیس نے جو در

پردہ مسلمان ہو چکے تھے مگر ان کا مسلمان ہونا ابھی سب کو معلوم نہ تھا ، قریش اور یہود سے جاکر الگ الگ ایسی باتیں کیں جس سے دونوں میں پھوٹ پڑ گئی ۔ اللہ کا کرنا کہ انہی دنوں میں ایک رات کو ایسی تیز آندھی چلی کہ دشمنوں کے خیموں کی رسیاں اکھڑ اکھڑ گئیں ۔ کھانے کی ہانڈیاں چولہوں پر الٹ الٹ جاتی تھیں۔سردی میں ہوا کی اس تیز باڑھ نے بھی کفار کے دل کپکپا دیئے۔
ان سب باتوں نے مل جل کر ساتھی فوجوں ( احزاب ) کے پاؤں اکھاڑ دیئے ۔ بنی قریظہ ان کا ساتھ چھوڑ کر اپنے قلعوں میں چلے گئے۔غطفان بھی روانہ ہو گئے ۔ یہ دیکھ کر قریش بھی نا چارمحاصرہ چھوڑ کر چلے گئے اور مدینہ کا کنارہ بیس بائیس دن تک غبار میں اٹ کر پھر صاف پڑ گیا۔

حواله:
كتاب: “رحمتِ عَالم”
تاليف: “علاّ مه سيد سليمان ندوى”

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