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05. MAZAAHIB-E-ARBA’AA AUR UN KA MUKHTASAR TA’AARUF.

MAZAAHIB-E-ARBA’AA AUR UN KA MUKHTASAR TA’AARUF.
Mazaahib-e-araba’aa mein yeh mazaahib shaamil hain.
(1) Mazhab-e-Hanafi,
(2) Mazhab-e-Maliki,
(3) Mazhab-e-Shaafie,
(4) Mazhab-e-Hanbali.
in chaaron ki tafseel kuch hasb-e-zail hai.

(1) MAZHAB-E-HANAFI.

Ta’aaruf.
mazaahib-e-araba’aa mein sub say qadeem mazhab, Mazhab-e-Hanafi hai, is ki nashw-o-namah koofah mein huwi kiyonkeh is kay iamam “Abu Hanifah ( رحمه الله )” is ilaqay say ta’alluq rakhtay thay,
phir raftah raftah yeh mazhab pooray iraq mein, aur phir misar, faaris, bukhara, balakh, room, farghanah aur hindostan kay aksar hisaay aur Yaman kay kuch hissay mein phail gaya,
is mazhab kay pair-o-kaar “Ahl-ul-raaye” kahlatay hain, kiyonkeh Iraq mein ahadith kam pahunchnay ki wajah say inhon nay bohot ziyadah qiyaas karna shuroo kar diya,
yuon yeh log ahl-e-qiyaas ya ahl-ul-raaye kahlanay lagay, neez in kay imam bhi qiyaas kay bohot baray maahir thay,
kutub-e-ahnaaf mein maujood hai keh fiqah-e-hanafi ko kitabi shakal mein jama karnay wala pahla shakhs “Asad bin Amar ( رحمه الله )” tha, aur aik qaul kay mutabiq “Nooh bin abi Maryam ( رحمه الله )” tha, aur fiqah-e-hanafi ko mudawwan karnay walay fuqaha ki taadaad 40 thi, jin imam abu yousuf aur imam zofar ( رحمهما الله ) bhi shaamil thay,

Ahnaaf mansab-e-qazaa par.
Haroon-ul-rasheed kay daur-e-khilaafat mein imam abu hanifah ( رحمه الله ) kay shagird-e-raheed imam abu yousuf ( رحمه الله ) ko qaazi-ul-quzaat muqarrar kiya gaya, chunancheh poori saltanat kay har ilaqay mein qaazi ka taqarrur inhi kay hukam say hota aur woh sirf apnay hum maslak shakhs ko hi qaazi muqarrar farmatay, neez un kay baad bhi ahnaaf ki hamaishah ye hi koshish rahi keh uhdah-e-qazaa sirf ahnaaf kay pas hi rahay, chunancheh woh har dusray maslak kay qaazi ko maazool karanay kay liye khufiah chalen aur saazishen kartay rahtay,
lihazah is zamanay kay tamaam muslimon ko hanafi ahkaam-o-fataawa par majbooran amal karna parta, aur youn is maslak ki bohot ziyadah tarweej-o-ishaa’at huwi.

Mukhtalif mamaalik mein tarweej-o-ishaa’at.
shumaali Africa ka woh ilaqah jo lebiya, tiyuonas aur al-jazaair par mushtamal hai, mazhab-e-hanafi say pahlay kisi mazhab ka pair-o-kaar nahi tha,
phir is ilaqay mein sub say pahlay mazhab-e-hanafi laanay walay “abu muhammad abdullah bin farroh al-faasi ( رحمه الله )” hanafi thay, lekin is mazhab ko ghalabah us waqat haasil huwa jab”Asad bin faraat bin sanaan ( رحمه الله )” is ilaqay kay qaazi muqarrar huway,
aik arsay tak wahan yeh hi mazhab ghaalib raha lekin jab iqtedaar “mu’ezz bin badees ( رحمه الله )” kay hath ayaa to us nay malaliki mazhab ki ishaa’at ki, chunancheh aaj bhi is ilaqay ki aksariyat maliki mazhab par hi hai.
misar mein sab say pahlay mazhab-e-hanafi pahunchnay wala “Qaazi Isma’eel bin al-yasa ( رحمه الله )” hai, jisay abbasi daur mein 164 hijri mein misar ka qaaz muqarrar kiya gaya, us kay baad awaam say baaz masaail mein ikhtilaaf-e-raaye kay paish-e-nazar usay maazool kar diya gaya, lekin deegar ulamaa-o-fuqahaa kay zariyeh ye mazhab misar mein furogh pata raha.

 

faatimi ahad mein unhon nay apnay hum mazhab Isma’eeli shee’aa hazraat ko qaazi muqarrar kiya aur tamaam faislay issi mazhab kay mutabiq honay lagay taaham ahnaaf ko ibadaat mein azadi di gayi keh woh jaisay chahen ibaadat kartay rahain,
misar mein ayyubi saltanat qaaim huwi to unhon nay Shaafi’e-ul-mazhab honay ki wajah say is mazhab ko tarweej di aur is kay liye baishtar ilaqon mein madaaris qaaim kiye,
jab misar par usmaani ghalib aaye to unhon nay mansab-e-qazaa sirf ahnaaf kay liye khaas kar diya jis ki wajah say umaraa-o-hukkaam tak ko us kay mutabiq chalna para aur aaj tak wahan yeh hi soorat-e-haal hai.

Mazhab-e-hanafi asr-e-haazir mein.
is kay ilawah Iraq, Khurasaan, sijistaan, jurjaan, tabrastaan, afghanistan, faaris, shaam, turkey, Bangladesh, turkumanistaan, taajikistaan, qaziqistaan, bausansiya, albaniya aur barr-e-sagheer pak-o-hind mein is mazhab kay pair-o-kaar kasrat say maujood hain,
aur iran, Indonesia, srilanka, Thailand, malaishiya, barma, Saudi Arabia aur Brazil mein bohot kam hain,
aik andaazay kay mutabiq ahnaaf dunya kay kul musalmaanon ka 2 tehaayi hissa hain.

(2) MAZHAB-E-MALIKI.
Ta’aaruf.
yeh mazhab imam Malik ( رحمه الله ) ki taraf mansoob hai, choonkeh ap ( رحمه الله ) hamaishah madinah mein hi muqeem rahay is liye is ki nashw-o-namah Madinah mein hi huwi, phir aahistah aahistah pooray hijaaz, Yaman, shaam, Basraah, misar, maraakash, undlas, sisliy aur Sudan waghairah mein bhi phail gaya,
is mazhab kay pair-o-kaar ahl-ul-hadees kahlatay hain, kiyonkeh inhon nay istinbaat-e-ahkaam kay liye ziyadah tar aitmaad kitab-o-sunnat par hi kiya, qiyaas-o-raaye ki taraf bohot kam mutawajjah huway, taaham unhon nay kitab-o-sunnat kay ilawah ahl-e-madinah kay amal ko bohot ziyadah tarjee di aur mo’utabar samjha.

Mukhtalif mamaalik mein tarweej-o-ishaa’at.
misar mein is mazhab ki tarweej karnay walay imam malik ( رحمه الله ) kay 2 shagird Usman bin Abdul hakam aur Abdul Raheem bin Khalid bin Yazeed ( رحمهما الله ) hain, yeh donon imam Malik ( رحمه الله ) say ilam haasil kar kay aik saath misar lautay aur fiqah-e-maliki ki ishaa’at ki.
daur-e-ayyubiyah mein is mazhab kay liye madaaris qaaim kiye gaye to is ki mazeed tash’heer-o-tarweej huwi, Libya, tiyounas aur al-jazaair waghairah mein is mazhab ka ghalbah us waqat huwa jab 407 hijri mein mu’ezz bin badees nay is ilaqay ka iqtedaar sanbhala aur yahan kay logon ko Mazhab-e-Maliki par amal karnay kay liye majboor kar diya,
undlas mein yeh mazhab yahya bin yahya bin kaseer, ziyaad bin Abdul Rahman aur Eisa bin dinaar ( رحمهم الله ) ki koshishon say nashar huwa aur jab undlas kay hukmaraan Hisham bin Abdul Rahman nay is mazhab ko qubool kiya to logon say ba’zaur-e-shamsheer is mazhab ko qubool karwa liya,
maraakash mein jab Ali bin yousuf bin taashifeen saahib-e-iqtedaar huwa to us nay fuqahaa-o-mujhtahideen ko is qadar ahmiyat-o-ikraam say nawaza keh hukoomat ka koi faisla un say mashwarah liye baghair na karta, choonkeh us kay darbaar mein taqarrub-o-martabah ussi ko haasil hota jo fiqah-e-maliki ka aalim hota, is liye Mazhab-e-Maliki ki taraf ruj’haan bohot ziyadah ho gaya, aur youn raftah raftah kitab-o-sunnat ki bajaaye istinbaat-e-ahkaam kay liye sirf Mazhab-e-Maliki ki kutub par hi inhesaar kiya janay laga, taaham jab ussi shaahi khandaan kay sapoot yaqoob bin yousuf bin Abdul moumin ko iqtedaar naseeb huwa to us nay fiqah ka khaatimah kar kay dobara kitab-o-sunnat kay zaahir par amal karnay ko laazim qaraar day diya.

 

Mazhab-e-maliki asr-e-haazir.
aaj yeh mazhab maraakash, moritiniya, tiyounas, Al-jazaair aur Libya mein maujood hai, aur in ilaqon mein is mazhab kay pair-o-kaar kasrat say hain,
taaham misar, Sudan, libnan aur hijaaz mein bhi in ki aqalliyat maujood hai,
1930 mein lagaye gaye andaazay kay mutabiq is mazhab kay pair-o-kaaron ki taadaad 4 karor thi.


(3) MAZHAB-E-SHAAFIE.
ta’aaruf.
yeh mazhab Imam Shaafi’e ( رحمه الله ) ki taraf mansoob hai jo ghazaah mein paida huway aur misar mein faut huway, is mazhab kay pair-o-kaaron ko bhi maalikiyon ki tarah kaha jata hai, aur baaz ilaqon mein to ahl-e-hdith kay naam say muraad sirf shawaafi’e hi hotay thay,
masalan Khurasaan waghairah mein.
fil-haqeeqat imam Shaafi ( رحمه الله ) pahlay imam Malik ( رحمه الله ) kay shagird thay phir ahl-e-iraq say ta’aleem haasil ki, is tarah unhon nay in donon mazaahib kay imtezaaj say aik teesra naya mazhab bana liya, sub say pahlay yeh mazhab misar mein muta’aaraf huwa, phir Baghdad, shaam, Khurasaan, tauran, aur bilaad-e-faaris tak jaa pahuncha.

Mukhtalif mamaalik mein tarweej-o-ishaa’at.
misar mein mazhab-e-hanafi aur mazhab-e-maliki ghalib thay, lekin jab imam Shaafi ( رحمه الله ) misar pahunchay to un ka mazhab bhi phailnay laga,
mahzab-e-shaai’e ko misar mein urooj daur-e-ayyubiyah mein huwa, kiyonkeh is khandaan kay tamaam afraad Shaafi’e-ul-mazhab thay siwaa-e-sultan-e-sham Eisa bin Aadil Abu bakar kay, sirf yeh hi hanafi thay, misar mein iqtedaar kay baa’is yeh mazhab khoob phaila,
sham mein pahlay mazhab-e-auzaayi raaij tha,
lekin jab imam Abu zu’aa shaafi’e ( رحمه الله ) misar say uhdah-e-qazaa say dast-e-bardaar ho kar dimashque kay qaazi muqarrar huway to tamaam faislay, ahkaam aur fatawa shaafi’e mazhab kay mutabiq honay lagay, is tarah is ilaqay mein shaafi’e mazhab ki tarweej huwi aur is kaam ko sar anjaam denay waly yeh hi shakhs thay,
Baghdad mein agarcheh aksariyat ahnaaf ki thi jab mazhab-e-shaafie wahan pahuncha to in donon mazaahib ki baahimi kashmakash shuroo ho gayi thi aur abbasi hukoomat ka mazhab bhi hanafi tha lekin baaz khulafa nay mazhab-e-shaafie ko bhi qubool kiya, jaisa keh khalifah mutawakkil nay kiya,
is lay ilawah Khurasaan, ray aur hamadan mein bhi yeh mazhab kashaan kashaan phaila, lekin bilaad-e-maghrib mein maalikiyon ki kasrat ka baa’is na phail saka aur kuch is wajah say bhi keh Maliki mazhab kay log imam Shaafi’e ( رحمه الله ) say bughz rakhnay lagay thay kiyonkeh unhon nay pahlay imam Malik ( رحمه الله ) say ilam seekha phir inhin say ikhtilaaf kiya.
baaz taareekhi kutub mein maujood hai keh undlas kay hukmaraan yaqoob bin yousuf nay pahlay to ailaaniyah zaahiriyat panayi thi lekin phir apnay aakhiri daur mein mazhab-e-shaafie ki taraf maail ho gaya tha aur baaz shahron mein issi mazhab kay qaazi bhi muqarrar kar diye thay.

Asr-e-haazir mein shaafi’e mazhab.
is mazhab kay aksar pair-o-kaar Philippine, malaishiya, Indonesia, Thailand, srilanka, misar, Sudan, Libya, urdan, libnan aur falasteen mein abaad Hain, is ki kuch taadaad shumaali Africa, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, sham, Yaman aur barr-e-sagheer kay saahili ilaqon mein bhi maujood hai,
1930 kay andaazay kay mutabiq dunya mein shawaafi’e ki taadaad kam-o-baish 10 carore thi.

 

(4) MAZHAB-E-HANBALI.
Ta’aaruf.
yeh mazhab Imam Ahmad Bin hanbal ( رحمه الله ) ki taraf mansoob hai, jo Baghdad mein paida huway aur wahin wafaat paayi,
ap ( رحمه الله ) imam Shaafi ( رحمه الله ) kay khaas shagirdon mein say thay, ap ( رحمه الله ) ka mazhab pahlay Baghdad mein ubhra phir shaam kay shaheron say hota huwa deegar ilaqon tak phail gaya, lekin is mazhab ko woh furogh-o-urooj haasil na ho saka jo pahlay teenon mazahib ko haasil huwa,
is mazhab kay pair-o-kaar bohot kam taadaad mein hain kiyonkeh unhon nay hatta-al-wus’a ijtehaad say ijtenaab kiya aur khaalis kitab-o-sunnat kay mutabiq hi faislay kartay rahay,
yeh log dusron ki ba’nisbat hadith-o-sunnat-e-nabawi say bohot ziyadah waabastah rahay, ghalbian yeh hi wajah hai keh yeh mazhab zaahiriyat kay bohot ziyadah qareeb hai.

Mukhtalif mamaalik mein tarweej-o-ishaa’at.
misar mein hanbali mazhab aik arsay kay baad pahuncha, sub say pahlay misar mein daakhil honay walay hanbali imam musannif-e-umdat-ul-ahkaam Hafiz Abdul Ghani maqdasi ( رحمه الله ) thay,
daur-e-ayyubiyah ( رحمه الله ) kay aakhir mein is mazhab ko misar mein furogh haasil huwa,
Iraq-o-sham kay ilawah moosil, azarbayijaan, Armenia, waghairah mein bhi yeh mazhab pahuncha lekin yeh yaad rahay keh kisi bhi daur mein aisa na huwa keh is mazhab ko kisi mulk mein ghalbah-o-iqtedaar naseeb huwa ho.

Jaleel-ul-qadar a’immah aur mazhab-e-hanbali.
yeh hi woh mazhab hai jis kay aqrab ila-alhaqq honay kay baa’is is ummat kay azeem paishuwa-o-mujtahid, faqeeh-o-danishmand, aur faqeed-ul-misaal, Shaikh-ul-islam, imam Ibn-e-taimiyah ( رحمه الله ) az had muta’assir thay, aur baaz ulamaa nay to unhain hanbali hi qaraar diya hai,
imam Ibn-e-taimiyah ( رحمه الله ) kay shagird imam Ibn-e-qayyim ( رحمه الله ) bhi issi mazhab say ta’alluq rakhtay thay keh jin ki tasnifaat aaj tak ilmi maraakiz-o-dafaatir mein nihaayat ahmiyat haasil kiye huway hain,
taaham yahan yeh yaad rahay keh agarcheh yeh a’immah is mazhab say muta’assir to thay lekin masaail kay istinbaat kay liye is maslak ko nahi balakeh kitab-o-sunnat ko hi paish-e-nazar rakhtay thay, shaikh Muhammad bin Abdul wahhab najdi ( رحمه الله ) bhi issi maslak kay pair-o-kaar thay,

Asr-e-haazir mein Mazhab-e-Hanbali.
shaikh Muhammad bin Abdul wahhab ( رحمه الله ) ki islahi tahreek ko choonkeh Saudi hukoomat kay mua’ssis-o-baani Abdul azeez all-e-saud ki himaayat haasil thi is liye us kay ahad mein is mazhab ko bohot urooj-o-ghalabah haasil huwa, aur aaj tak yeh hi mazhab hukoomat-e-Saudia ka sarkaari mazhab hai,
falasteen, sham aur Iraq waghairah mein bhi is mazhab kay pair-o-kaar maujood hain,
1930 kay andaazay kay mutabiq is mazhab kay pair-o-kaaron ki taadaad kam-o-baish 30 say 40 lakh thi.(1).
__________
(1)_ [(mazaahib-e-araba’aa ki mazeed tafseel kay liye mulahazah ho: islami dunya mein fiqahi mazaahib-e-araba’aa ka furogh, az Allamah ahmad taimoor pasha.)]

 

 

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