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28. SAJDAH-E-SAHW KAY AHEKAM-O-MASAIYL [ PROSTRATION FOR FORGETFULLNESS IN THE PRAYER ]

SAJDA-E-SAHW KE MASAIL-O-EHKAM

 

 

1. NAMAZ MEIN IZAFA KARNA:

 

Agar koi shakhs bhool kar namaz mein ruku, Sujood, Qiyam ya Q’adah ka izafah kar baithe, to woh us namaz ko mukammal karke salam pher de, phir Sahw ke do (2) sajde kare, aur phir dobara salam pher de.

 

ISKI MISAAL: Agar Zuhr ki namaz parh rahe the, aur bhool kar paanchvi (5th) rakat ke liye khare hogae phir yaad aaya ya kisi ne yaad dilaya to woh “Allahu Akbar” kahe baghair baith jaey aur Tashahhud aakhir (Durood aur Ta’awwuz ki duaon) se farigh hokar salam pherle, phir do (2) sajde kare aur salam pherle. Isi tarah agar use salam pherne ke ba’ad pata chale keh usne bhool kar namaz mein izafah kardiya hai to woh sahw ke do sajde kare aur (phir se) salam pherle.

 

2. QABAL AZ WAQT SALAM PHER LENA:

 

Agar aap ne namaz se pehle hi salam pher liya, phir jald hi yaad aaya ya kisi ne yaad dilaya, to jitni namaz parhli hai, us se aage wali baqiyah mukammal kare aur salam phere aur phir sahw ke do sajde kare aur phir salam pher le.

ISKI MISAAL: Agar koi shakhs namaz-e-zuhr parh raha tha, magar usne bhool kar tesri rakat ke ba’ad salam pher liya, phir use yaad aagaya ya kisi ne yaad dilaya, to woh Chauthi (4th) rakat parhe aur salam pherle. Phir do (2) sajde kare aur dobara salam pherle.

**Agar kisi ko bahot der ke ba’ad ja kar yaad aaya keh main ne to bhool kar teen hi rakat parhi theen, to phir wo us namaz ko naey (new) sire se mukammal hi ada kare.

 

3. WAJIBAT NAMAZ MEIN SE KUCHH CHHORNA. 

 

Agar kisi se bhool kar namaz ke wajibat maslan do (2) tashahhud wali namaz ka tashahhud e awwal chhut gaya, to woh salam pherne se pehle sirf Sahw ke do (2) sajde karle uspar aur kuchh nahi hai, agar uski jagah se aage barhne se pehle hi yaad agaya to usi waqt us wajib ko ada karle aur agar uske maqam se aage nikal gae, magar usse aage wale maqam o aml tak pahonchne se pehle hi yaad agaya, to wahin se wapas hojaey aur us wajib ko ada karle, is shakal mein bhi us shakhs par koi Sajadah-e-Sahw wagherah nahi hai.

MISAAL: Do(2) rakaton ke ba’ad wala tashahhud bhool gaya aur teesri rakat ke liye khara hogaya to ab wapas na baithe. Albatta salam pherne se pehle sahw ke do sajde karle ya Tashahhud ke liye baithe magar tashahhud parhna bhool gae aur uthne lage magar uthne se pehle hi yaad agaya to  fauran Tashahhud parhle to uspar koi Sajadah-e-Sahw nahi.

      Aise hi tashahhud parhna bhool gae aur agli rakat ke liye uthna shuru kiya magar poore taur par khare hojane se pehle hi yaad agaya to  wapas baith jaey aur Tashahhud parh kar namaz poori kare. Taham aise shakhs ke liye Ahle ilm ne zikr kiya hai keh wo Sahw ke do (2) sajde karle kyunke usne namaz mein yeh thora sa uth jaane ka izafa kiya hai. Wallahu alam.

 

4. SHAK: TA’DAAD E RAKAT MEIN SHAK:

 

Agar kisi ko shak hojaey ke usne do(2) rakaten parhi hain ya teen? Aur donon mein se koi bhi adad raajeh shakal ikhtiyar na kar sake, to woh yaqeen par buniyad rakhe aur yaqeen wala adad kam rakaton wala hai aur Namaz (Baqi ki jis mein shak ho wo) poori karne ke ba’ad salam pherne se pehle Sajdah-e-Sahw karle aur phir salam pherle.

MISAAL: Agar koi Zuhr ki namaz parh raha tha aur dusri rakat par use shak hogaya ke yeh dusri hai ya teesri aur donon mein se koi bhi raajeh shakal mein na ho to woh dusri samjhe aur namaz mukammal karle aur salam pherne se pehle Sahw ke (2) sajde karle.

 

5. TARJEEH KI SHAKAL MEIN:

 

Agar kisi ko namaz ki rakaton mein shak hojaey keh do (2) rakaten parhi hain ya teen? Aur un donon mein se ek janib uske nazdeek raajeh bhi ho, to woh raajeh janib par buniyad rakhe, woh kam ta’daad wali ho ya ziyada wali, aur is surat mein salam pherne ke ba’ad do (2) sajde karle aur salam pherle.

MISAAL: Ek shakhs Namaz-e-Zuhr ada kar raha tha aur dusri rakat par use shak hogaya ke yeh dusri hai ya teesri? Aur use is rakat ka teesri hona raajeh laga, to woh teesri samajhte huey namaz ko mukammal karle aur salam pher le. Phir Sahw ke do (2) sajde kar le aur salam pher le.

*Agar kisi ko salam pher lene ke ba’ad shak hojaey to woh uski parwah na kare illah yeh keh use yaqeen hojaey.

*Agar koi shakhs shukook taba’ ya kaseer ush shak ho to woh bhi shak ki parwa na kare, kyunke yeh waswason mein se hain.

 

وَاَللّٰہُ اَعْلَمُ۔
وَ صَلَّی اللّٰہُ وَسَلَّمَ عَلٰی نَبِیِّنَا مُحَمَّدٍوَآلِہٖ وَصَحْبِہٖ۔

 

 

REFERENCE:

BOOK: “Mukhtasar Masaiyl o Ehkam Taharat o Namaz
By Allamah Sheikh Muhammad bin Saleh Uthaymeen (رحمہ اللّٰہ علیہ)

 

 

PROSTRATION FOR FORGETFULLNESS IN THE PRAYER

 

 

✯ HAVING ADDED SOMETHING (Az-Ziyaadah):

 

If the person praying deliberately adds an extra standing, sitting, bowing or prostration, then his prayer is nullified. If however, he does so due to forgetfulness and does not remember the addition until having completed it, then there is nothing due upon him except Sujoodus-Sahw, his prayer will be correct. If however, he remembers whilst performing that addition, then it is obligatory upon him to leave that addition and also to perform Sujoodus-Sahw (i.e., at the end of the prayer), and his prayer will be correct.

 

➤ EXAMPLE:

A person who pray the Zuhr prayer as five rak’ahs, but does not remember that he has added except whilst in the Tashahhud. So he should complete the Tashahhud, and make the salutations (salaam) and then prostrate for  forgetfulness, and then give the salutation (again). If, however, he does not remember the addition except after the salutation, then he should perform prostration for forgetfulness and give the salutation (again).

 

PROOF:

The proof for this is the hadith of ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood ( عنه الله رضي ) who said that, 

“The Prophet () prayed Zuhr with five rak’ahs, so someone said, ‘Has increase been made in the prayer?’ So he replied, ‘And why is that?’ They said, ‘You have prayed five (rak’ahs).’ So he performed two prostrations after having given the salutation” 

and in a narration (there occurs)

“… so he turned his feet and faced the Qiblah, and per formed two Prostrations, then he gave the Salutation.” 

 

[Bukhaari o Muslim]

 

✯ GIVING SALUTATIONS (SALAM) BEFORE COMPLETION OF THE PRAYER:

 

Giving salutation before the completion of the Prayer is a case of addition in the Prayer. So whoever gives the salutation before the completion of the Prayer deliberately, then his prayer is nullified.

 

➤ EXAMPLE:

If a person prayed only 3 rak’ahs in Zuhr prayer and gives the salutations  due to forgetfulness, and he does not remember this until after a long time then he should repeat his prayer again. If he remembers a short time later, such as after two or three minutes, then he should complete his prayer and salutation, and then prostrate for forgetfulness, and then give salutation (again).

 

PROOF:

Abu Hurairah ( عنه الله رضي ) who said that, 

“The Prophet() lead them in the Zuhr prayer or the ‘Asr prayer and gave the salutation after two rak’ah.s. Then he departed quickly from one of the doors of the mosque, and the people were saying that the prayer had been decreased. The Prophet  meanwhile, stood by a piece of wood placed in the mosque, leaning against it, as if he was angry. So a man stood and said, ‘0 Messenger of Allah, have you forgotten or has the prayer been reduced?’ So the Prophet, () said, ‘I did not forget nor has it been reduced.’ So the man said, ‘Rather you have indeed forgotten.’ So the Prophet () said to the Companions, ‘Is what he is saying true. They said, ‘Yes.’ So the Prophet () went forward and prayed what remained of his prayer, then he gave the salutation, then he prostrated twice, then he gave the salutation.”

[Sahih Bukhaari]

 


✯ OMISSION (NAQS):

 

Omission of Pillars (Arkaan): If a person omits a Pillar (Rukn) from his prayer, then if it is in the initial Takbeer (Takbeeratul-Ihraam), then there is no prayer for him whether he left it deliberately or forgetfully because his prayer has not been established. If it is something other than the initial Takbeer, then if it is left deliberately, his prayer is nullified. If however, he leaves it due to forgetfulness, then if he goes on and reaches its place in the next rak’ah, then he discards the rak’ah which he forgot it in, and the following one takes its place. If he has not reached its place in the next rak’ah, then it is obligatory upon him to return to the missed pillar and to perform it and whatever comes after it. In either of these two cases it will be obligatory upon him to perform prostration for forgetfulness after the salutation.

 

➤ EXAMPLE:

  • If a person who forgets the second prostration in the first rak’ah, but remembers this whilst sitting between the two prostrations in the second rak’ah. So he should discard the first rak’ah and the second one will take its place, so he counts that as his first rak’ah and completes his prayer based upon that. Then he should give the salutation, prostrate for forgetfulness, and then give salutation.
  •  A further example (is that of) a person who forgets the second prostration and the sitting before it in the first rak’ah. But he remembers this after standing straight from the rukoo in the second rak’ah. He should go back to sit and to prostrate, and then complete his prayer from there on. Then he should give the salutation, prostrate for forgetfulness, and finally give salutation.

 

✯ OMISSION OF OBLIGATIONS (WAJIBAAT):  If the person praying leaves an obligation from the obligations of the prayer deliberately, then his prayer is nullified. If however, he does so due to forgetfulness, and he remembers it before moving on from its place in the prayer, then he should perform it, and there is nothing upon him.

If he remembers it after having moved on from its place in the prayer, but before reaching the pillar that follows it, then he returns to it and performs it. Then he completes his prayer and gives salutation, prostrates for forgetfulness, and gives salutation. If however, he remembers it after reaching the pillar that follows it, then it is cancelled, so he should not go back to it but should continue his prayer and then prostrate for forgetfulness before giving the salutation.

 

➤ EXAMPLE:

If a person raises himself up from the second prostration in the second rak’ah in order to stand for the third rak’ah, forgetting the first tashahhud. But he remembers before actually getting up, so he should remain in the sitting position, perform the tashahhud, and then complete his prayer and there is nothing upon him. However, if he remembers after beginning to stand, but before standing straight, then he should return to the sitting position and perform the tashahhud. He should then complete his prayer and give the salutation, prostrate for forgetfulness, and give the salutation. If he remembers after standing straight, then the tashahhud is cancelled for him, he does not return to it. Rather he continues and completes his prayer, and prostrates for forgetfulness before giving the salutation.

PROOF:

Abdullah ibn Buhaynah ( عنه الله رضي ) who said that, 

“The Prophet () led them in Zuhur prayer. He stood after the first two ‘rak’ah and did not sit (meaning for the first tashahhud), so the people stood along with him. Then when it came to the completion of the prayer and the people awaited his salutation, he said takbeer whilst sitting and performed two prostrations before giving the salutation. Then he gave the salutation.”

 

[Sahih Bukhaari]


✯  DOUBT (SHAKK):

 

Doubt is to be uncertain about which of the two matters has occurred, and doubt is not taken notice of in matters of worship in three cases:


  • If it is just a self-delusion, having no reality, like devilish whisperings.
  • If it occurs very frequently to a person such that he does not perform any act of worship except that he is caused to doubt in it.
  • If it occurs after the completion of the acts of worship, then it is not taken account of, as long as he is not certain of it, in which case he will act upon what he is certain of. 

 

➤ EXAMPLE:

If a person prays Zuhr, and after finishing his prayer he doubts whether he prayed three or four rak’ahs. Then he takes no notice of this doubt unless he is certain that he only prayed three rak’ah, in which case he should complete his prayer if it occurs a short while later, then he should give the salutation, prostrate for forgetfulness and then perform the salutation. If however, he does not remember until a long time has passed, then he must repeat the whole prayer afresh.

 

 Doubt in the prayer will be one of two kinds:


  •  That one of the two matters is more weighty in his mind, so he will act upon what is more weighty to him, then he will complete his prayer based upon that, after which he should give the salutation, prostrate for  forgetfulness and finally give the salutation. An example of this is if a person prays.

 

➤ EXAMPLE:

Zuhr and doubts in a rak’ah (as to whether) it is the second or the third rak’ah? But the weightier case in his mind is that it is the third, so he makes it the third. So after he performs one further rak’ah, he gives the salutation, prostrates for forgetfulness and then he gives the salutation.

 

PROOF:

The hadith of ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood ( عنه الله رضي ) that the Prophet (ﷺ) said, 

“If one of you doubts in his prayer, then let him strive to arrive at what is correct, and complete it upon that basis. Then let him give the salutation and perform two prostrations.”

[Bukhaari o Muslim]


  •  Neither of the two possibilities are more weightier in his mind. Therefore, he should act upon what he is certain of, which will be the lesser of the two, and complete his prayer based upon that, and then prostrate for forgetfulness before giving the salutation, and then give the salutation.

 

➤ EXAMPLE:

 If a person is praying ‘Asr and doubts in a rak’ah (as to) whether it is the second or the third, and neither its being the second nor its being the third is more weighty in his mind. So he makes it the second, performs the first tashahhud and two rak’ahs after it, and then prostrates for forgetfulness and gives salutation.

 

PROOF:

Reports from Abu Sa’eed al-Khudree ( عنه الله رضي) that the Prophet 

(ﷺ) said,

 

“If one of you doubts in his prayer and does not know how many he has prayed- whether it is three or four – then let him cast away the doubt and build upon what he is certain of. Then let him perform two prostrations before giving the salutation. So if he has prayed five, then they will make his prayer even for him, and if he has prayed the full four, then they will be a humiliation for Satan.”

[Sahih Muslim]

 

✯ PROSTRATION FOR FORGETFULLNESS FOR ONE PRAYING BEHIND AN IMAM:

 

If the Imaam forgets then it is obligatory upon those following him in prayer to follow him in performance of the prostration for forgetfulness due to the saying of the Prophet (ﷺ) 

“The Imaam  is appointed to be followed, so do not differ with him…” until he said “… so when he prostrates then prostrate.”

 

[Sahih Bukhaari]

 

This hadith is agreed upon from the hadith of Abu Hurairah (عنه الله رضي).

So whether the Imam prostrates for forgetfulness before the salutation or after it, it is obligatory upon those praying behind him. This is except for the one who arrived late and needs to make up the part of the prayer that he missed, he should not follow the Imam in performance of prostration after the salutation, as this is not possible for him. This is because he cannot give the salutation along with the Imam, so what he should do is to first make up what he had missed, and then give the salutation, then to prostrate for forgetfulness, and then to give the salutation.

 

➤ EXAMPLE:

 If  a man enters the prayer along with the Imam in the final rak’ah, and a prostration for forgetfulness is due from the Imam after the salutation. So when the Imam gives the salutation this man should stand to complete what he missed and does not prostrate along with the Imam. Then when he has completed what he missed and has given the salutation, he should then perform prostration for forgetfulness after this salutation. But if the follower and not the Imam forgets in the prayer, and nothing of the prayer escapes him, then no prostration is due from him. This is because his prostrating would cause him to differ from the Imam and to disrupt his state of following him. Also because the Companions () left the tashahhud when the Prophet () forget it, so they stood along with him and did not sit for the tashahhud in order to comply with the duty of following and not differing with the Imam.  

But if he misses part of the prayer due to forgetting whilst praying behind the Imam, or whilst making up what he had missed on his own, then he must prostrate for forgetfulness after completion of what he had missed. This prostration will be either before or after the salutation depending on its cause, as has preceded.

(Note): From what has preceded it will be clear that the prostration for forgetfulness is sometimes performed before the salutation, and sometimes after it.

So I ask Allah that He should grant us and our Muslim brothers understanding of His Book and the Sunnah of His Messenger (ﷺ) and that we act upon them inwardly and outwardly, in matters of aqeedah, worship and dealings. And that He grants us all a good outcome, indeed He is the Most Beneficent, Most Generous.

And all praise is for Allah, the Lord of all creation, and may Allah extol and send blessings of peace upon our Prophet Muhammad, upon his true followers  and all his Companions.

 

 

REFERENCE:
Written and compiled by the one in need of Allaah, the Most High 
Muhammad ibn Saalih al-’Uthaimeen  on 4/3/1400H

 

 

 

سجدۂ سہو کے مسائل واحکام

 

۱۔نماز میں اضافہ کرنا:

 

اگر کوئی شخص بھول کر نماز میں رکوع ، سجود، قیام یا قعدہ کا اضافہ کر بیٹھے، تو وہ اس نماز کو مکمل کر کے سلام پھیرے،پھر سہو کے دوسجدے کرے ،اور پھر دوبارہ سلام پھیر دے۔

 

اسکی مثال:

 

اگرظہر کی نماز پڑھ رہا تھا ،اور بھول کر پانچویں رکعت کیلئے کھڑا ہوگیا،پھر یاد آیا یا کسی نے یاد دلایا،تووہ  اَللّٰہُ اَکْبَرکہے بغیر بیٹھ جائے اور تشہُّدأخیر(بمع درود شریف اورتعوّذ ودعاء) سے فارغ ہو کرسلام پھیرلے۔پھر دو سجدے کرے اور سلام پھیرلے۔اسی طرح اگر اسے سلام پھیرنے کے بعدپتہ چلے کہ اس نے بھول کر نماز میں اضافہ کردیا ہے تو وہ سہو کے دوسجدے کرے اور سلام پھیرلے۔

 

 

۲۔قبل از وقت سلام پھیرلینا:

 

اگر آپ نے نماز سے پہلے ہی سلام پھیر لیا۔پھر جلد بعد ہی یاد آیا یا کسی نے یاد دلایا،تو جتنی نمازپڑھ لی ہے، اس سے آگے والی بقیہ نماز مکمل کریں اور سلام پھریں اور پھر سہو کے دو سجدے کریں اور پھر سلام پھر لیں۔

 

اسکی مثال:

 

اگر کوئی شخص نماز ظہر پڑھ رہا تھا،مگر اس نے بھول کر تیسری رکعت کے بعد سلام پھیرلی،پھر اسے یاد آگیا یا کسی نے یاد دلا دیا،تو وہ چوتھی رکعت پڑھے اور سلام پھیرلے۔پھر دوسجدے کرے اور دوبارہ سلام پھیرلے۔

٭اگر کسی کو بہت دیر کے بعد جاکر یاد آیا کہ میں نے تو بھول کر تین ہی رکعتیں پڑھی تھیں ،تو پھر وہ اس نماز کو نئے سرے سے مکمل ہی ادا کرے۔

 

۳۔واجباتِ نماز میں سے کچھ چھوڑنا:

 

اگر کسی سے بھول کر نماز کے واجبات مثلاً دو تشہُّد والی نماز کا تشہُّدِ اول چھوٹ گیا، تو وہ سلام پھیرنے سے پہلے صرف سہو کے دو سجدے کرلے اس پر اور کچھ نہیں ہے۔اگر اسکی جگہ سے آگے بڑھنے سے پہلے ہی یاد آگیا تو اسی وقت اس واجب کو ادا کرلیں اور اگر اسکے مقام سے آگے نکل گئے، مگر اس سے آگے والے مقام وعمل تک پہنچنے سے پہلے ہی یاد آگیا، تو وہیں سے واپس ہوجائیں اور اس واجب کو ادا کرلیں۔اس شکل میں بھی اس شخص پر کوئی سجدۂ سہو وغیرہ نہیں ہے۔

 

مثال:

دورکعتوں کے بعد والا تشہُّد بھول گیا اور تیسری رکعت کیلئے کھڑے ہوگئے تو اب واپس نہ بیٹھیں۔ البتہ سلام پھرنے سے پہلے سہو کے دو سجدے کرلیں۔یا تشہُّد کیلئے بیٹھے مگر تشہُّد پڑھنا بھول گئے اور اٹھنے لگے مگر اٹھ جانے سے پہلے ہی یاد آگیا تو فوراً تشہُّد پڑھ لی تو اس پر کوئی سجدۂ سہو نہیں۔ایسے ہی تشہُّد پڑھنا بھول گئے اور اگلی رکعت کیلئے اٹھنا شروع کیا مگر پورے طور پر کھڑے ہوجانے سے پہلے ہی یاد آگیا تو واپس بیٹھ جائیں اور تشہُّد پڑھ کر نماز پوری کریں۔تاہم ایسے شخص کیلئے اہل ِعلم نے ذکر کیا ہے کہ وہ سہو کے دو سجدے کرلے کیونکہ اس نے نماز میں یہ تھوڑا سا اٹھ جانے کا اضافہ کیا ہے۔ وَاللّٰہُ اَعْلَمُ

 

۴۔تعدادِرکعات میں شک:

 

اگر کسی کو شک ہوجائے کہ اس نے دو رکعتیں پڑھی ہیں یا تین ؟اور دونوں میں سے کوئی بھی عدد راجح شکل

اختیار نہ کر سکے، تو وہ یقین پر بنیاد رکھے اور یقین والا عدد کم رکعتوں والا ہے۔اور نماز پوری کرنے کے بعد سلام پھیرنے سے پہلے سجدۂ سہو کرلے اور پھر سلام پھیر لے۔

 

مثال:

 

اگر کوئی ظہر کی نماز پڑھ رہا تھا اور دوسری رکعت پر اسے شک ہوگیا کہ یہ دوسری ہے یا تیسری اور دونوں میں سے کوئی بھی راجح شکل میں نہ ہو تو وہ دوسری سمجھے اور نماز مکمل کرلے اور سلام پھیرنے پہلے سہو کے دو سجدے کرلے۔

 

۵۔ترجیح کی شکل میں:

 

اگر کسی کی نماز کی رکعتوں میں شک ہو جائے کہ دو رکعتیں پڑھی ہیں یا تین ؟اور ان دونوں میں سے ایک جانب اس کے نزدیک راجح بھی ہو، تو وہ راجح جانب پر بنیاد رکھے۔وہ کم تعداد والی ہو زیادہ والی ،اور اس صورت میں سلام پھیرنے کے بعد دو سجدے کر لے اور سلام پھیرلے۔

 

مثال:

 

ایک شخص نمازِ ظہر ادا کر رہاتھا۔اور دوسری رکعت پر اسے شک ہو گیا کہ یہ دوسری ہے یا تیسری ؟اور اسے اس رکعت کا تیسری ہونا راجح لگا،تو وہ اسے تیسری سمجھتے ہوئے نماز کو مکمل کر لے اور سلام پھیرلے۔پھر سہو کے دو سجدے کر لے اور سلام پھیرلے۔

 

٭اگر کسی کو سلام پھیرلینے کے بعد شک ہو جائے تو وہ اسکی پراوہ نہ کرے ،اِلّا یہ کہ اسے یقین ہو جائے۔

٭اگر کوئی شخص شکوک طبع یا کثیرالشک ہو تو وہ بھی شک کی پرواہ نہ کرے ،کیونکہ یہ وسواس میں سے ہے۔

 

وَاَللّٰہُ اَعْلَمُ۔
وَ صَلَّی اللّٰہُ وَسَلَّمَ عَلٰی نَبِیِّنَا مُحَمَّدٍوَآلِہٖ وَصَحْبِہٖ۔

 



REFERENCE:
BOOK: “Mukhtasar Masaiyl o Ehkam Taharat o Namaz
By Allamah Sheikh Muhammad bin Saleh Uthaymeen (رحمہ اللّٰہ علیہ)

 

 

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