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05. Mukhtalif adwaar mein aurat ki halat [Status of Women throughout the Ages]

Mukhtalif adwaar mein aurat ki halat


Daur-e-jahiliyat mein aurat ki halat


Bilashuba Islam se qabal dor-e-jahiliyat mein aurat zulm o sitam ka nishana thi,iske huqooq gasab kiye jate the,iska maal harap kya jata tha,aur uski hesyat ek saste samaan ki thi,woh waaris nahin ban saktithi,isliye ke meeraas sirf usi ko di jati jo ghar sawari kar sakta aur maal o ghaneemat hasil kar sakta tha,balke aurat to khud apne shohar ki wafaat ke baad meeraas ban jati,jis tarah deegar sanaan meeraas ban jata tha,aur agar uske shohar ki doosri biwi se aulaad hoti to uska bara beta doosron ki nisbat apne baap ki biwi ka zyada haqdaar thehrta,woh uska usi tarah waaris banta jis tarah maal ka waaris hota hai,woh uske ghar se us waqt tak nahin nikal sakti thi jab tak ke apna fadya adaa na karde.Talaaq ke baad usse rujoo ka koi haq hasil nahin tha.Mard jitna chahta baghair kisi had ke shadiyaan kar sakta tha.Aurat ko apna shohar chunne ka koi nahin tha.Aesa koi nizam nahin tha jo mard ko aurat par zulum karne se rok sake.

Dor e jahiliyat mein Arab larki ki pediash par khush nahin hote the, balke woh usse manhoos samajhte aur usse burai aur azmaish khayal karte the,jab in mein se kisi ke haan beti peda hui to usse pareshani aur gham dhaamp lete,betiyon ke saath nafrat is had tak pohnch chuki thi ke woh unhe zinda dar gor kar dete,zinda dar gor karna qabail Arab ke haan aam tha,jiske khandan ki aejtamai halat ke mukhtalif hone wajah se mukhtalif asbaab the,kuch log betiyon ko aar ke khouf se zinda dar gor kar dete the aur kuch us mein aeb ya beemari ki wajah se usse zinda dar gor kar dete the, Allah Taala ka farman hai:

وَاِذَا بُشِّرَ اَحَدُهُمۡ بِالۡاُنۡثٰى ظَلَّ وَجۡهُهٗ مُسۡوَدًّا وَّهُوَ كَظِيۡمٌ‌ۚ ۞
يَتَوَارٰى مِنَ الۡقَوۡمِ مِنۡ سُوۡۤءِ مَا بُشِّرَ بِهٖ ؕ اَيُمۡسِكُهٗ عَلٰى هُوۡنٍ اَمۡ يَدُسُّهٗ فِى التُّـرَابِ‌ ؕ اَلَا سَآءَ مَا يَحۡكُمُوۡنَ ۞

Tarjuma: In mein se larki hone ki khabar di jaye to uska chehra siyaah hojata hai aur dil hi dil mein ghatne lagta hai.Is buri khabar ki wajah se logon se chupa chupa hota hai.Sochta hai ke kya isko zilat ke saath liye huwe hi rahe ya usse mitti mein daba de,Aah!kya hi bure faisle karte hain.Aur kuch fikar o faqa ke dar se zinda dar gor kar dete the,yeh Arab ke fiqra the,Quran Karim ne usse is tarah bayan kya hai.

وَلَا تَقۡتُلُوۡۤا اَوۡلَادَكُمۡ خَشۡيَةَ اِمۡلَاقٍ‌ؕ نَحۡنُ نَرۡزُقُهُمۡ وَاِيَّاكُمۡ‌ؕ اِنَّ قَتۡلَهُمۡ كَانَ خِطۡاً كَبِيۡرًا

Tarjuma:Aur muflasi ke khouf se apni aulad ko na maar dalo,unko tumko hum hi rozi dete hain.Yaqeenan inka qatal karna kabira gunah hai.Yahan tak ke aurat apne fitri haqooq se bhi mahroom thi,chanacha kuch cheezon mardon ke liye khas thin jabke aurton par haram thin,Allah Taala ka farman hai:

وَقَالُوۡا مَا فِىۡ بُطُوۡنِ هٰذِهِ الۡاَنۡعَامِ خَالِصَةٌ لِّذُكُوۡرِنَا وَمُحَرَّمٌ عَلٰٓى اَزۡوَاجِنَا

Tarjuma:Aur woh kehte hain ke jo cheez maweshi ke pait mein hai woh khalis hamare mardon ke liye hai aur hamari aurton par haram hain.Aesi koi cheez nahin thi jis par aurat fakhar kar sakti ho siwaye uske ke mard uski hifazat karta aur uski be harmati aur sharaf ki hifazat ki khatir badla leta tha.


Qadeem hindon muashre mein aurat ki halat


“Weed”jo ke hinduaon ki ek Muqadas kitab hai, jo barhaman deen ki asasiyaat parmushtamil hai,usne aurat ke mutaliq likha hai ke:Barhami sharyat mard aur aurat ke darmiyaan insani qadar o qeemat aur tamam haqooq mein farq karti hai,binabareen aurat ko uski shehri aehliyat se majard karke uski zindagi ke mukhtalif marahil mein se kisi bhi marhale mein apni chahat ke mutabik koi bhi mamla karna,chahe woh uske ghar ke androoni mamlaat mein se koi mamla hi kyun na ho usse uska haq nahin hai.

Bachpan ke marhale mein woh apne baap ke taabe hoti aur jawani ke marhale mein apne shohar ke taabe hoti,jab uska shohar fot hojata to uski zimedari uske chachaon ki taraf muntaqil ho jati,agar uske chacha na hote to hakim waqt ki taraf uski zimedari muntaqil hojati,aurat ko uski zindagi ke marahil mein se kisi bhi marhale mein azadi,khud mukhtari aur tasaruf ka koi haq nahin tha,

Hindu muashre mein aurat ki hesyat ek loondi ki thi jis ki koi chahat nahin thi,jisse khud ke kisi bhi mamle par koi ikhtiyaar nahin balke uska shohar usse juwe mein hara deta tha.

Woh apne shohar ki wafaat ke baad shadi nahin kar sakti thi,balke usse apne shohar ki wafaat ke baad zinda rehne ka bhi koi haq nahin tha,uske liye zaroori tha ke woh apne shohar ki wafaat ke baad ussi ki chita mein jal jaye.

Unki deeni katab kehti hain aurat ke liye behtar hai ke woh khud ko unhi lakriyon par daal de jo uske fot shuda shohar ko jalane ke liye rakhi gayi hon.Chanacha uske shohar ki laash ko lakriyon par rakh dia jata to uski biwi niqaab aage barhti,kaahan aur pandit uska niqaab utarte,woh apne zewraat utaar kar apne rishtedaaron par taqseem karti,phir apni medhiyaan kholti, aur sabse bara barhaman uska haath pakarta aur lakriyon ke irdgird usse teen chakar lagwata,phir woh lakriyon ko upar charh jati,phir ek mard us ke murda shohar utha kar uski peshani tak le aata jo us aurat ka apne shohar ke liye aajzi ka ishara hota, phir woh apne shohar par apna daayaan rakh kar beth jati,phir usko aag laga dete aur usse uske shohar ke saath hi jala dete.Unki yeh soch hoti thi ke aesa karna is aurat ko apne shohar ko saath hamesha ki nematon se humkanaar karde ga,aur woh apne shohar ke saath paanchween asamaan mein 35 millian saal rahegi,aur woh khud ko aag laga kar apne nanhyaal,dadhyaal,susraal aur apne shohar ko gunahon se paak kar degi aur aesi aurat ko tamaam aurton se barh kar pakeeza sabse zyada izzat aur bakirdar taswaoor kar lia jata.Yeh aadat unke haan itni aam ho chuki thi ke unhon ne mahz das saalon mein 1518 se 1525 tak taqreeban(6000)aurtein jala din,aur us sharyat par satarween sadi tak amal hota raha,yahan tak ke hindu mazhab ke deeni amainden ki napaseendigi ki banaa par usse chor dia gaya.

Us waqt hindu aurat jis badtreen halat mein zindagi basar karti thi iski wajah woh baaten bhi hain jo hindu sharyat mein ward hui hain ke:Taqdeer,Toofan,Mout, Jahanum,Zahreele saanp, in mein se koi is qadar kharab nahin hai jitni aurat

Aur basa auqaat ek aurat ke bek waqt kayi shohar hote aur uski halat mukamal tor par ek tawaif ki si hoti.


Qadeem cheeni muashre mein aurat ki halat


 

Kitab”Qissat-ul-Hazarta”ke molif W.Durant,qadeem cheeni maashre mein aurat ke maqaam ke hawale se likhte hain ke woh apne shohar ke taabe hoti,uski ataat o farmabardari mein apni umar guzar deti,apne maali aur maasharati tamam huqooq se yaqsar mahroom thi,woh is qadar mamooli thi ke usse khud ke kisi bhi maamle par koi ikhtiyar nahin tha balke mard hi us ke har maamle ka nigraan hota, usse saqafat o taleem ka koi haq nahin tha balke us par laazm tha ke ghar mein qaid rahe, khidmat kare, kaam kaaj kare, silai aur khidmat karne ke mukhtalif wasail seekhe aur us par laazm tha ke 15 saal ki umar ko pohnche to apne baal kaat de aur jab 20 saal ki hojaye to shadi karle aur uska waalid dalaal ki madad se uske liye shohar talash karta,uski wiladat ko nahoosat khayal kya jata.

Ek aur maqaam par likhte hain ke baap apni ibadaton mein duayein karte ke unhe bete diye jayein aur maaon ke liye naat ke sakht tareen aur daaimi asbaab mein se tha ke unki koi nareena aulaad na ho, isliye ke yeh betiyon ki nisbat kheton mein kaam karne ki zyada taaqat rakhte hain aur medan e qataal mein unse zyada mazboot hote hain, aur betiyaan apne baapon par bojh tasawur ki jatin isliye ke unki soch thi ke woh unki maar peet karke,tarbiyat karte hain,phir unhe unke shoharon ke ghar bhej dete hain(jisse unhe koi faida nahin hota).

Yahan tak ke betiyon ko qatal karne ke aadaat bhi mojood the,jab kisi khandan mein zaroorat se zyada betiyaan peda hojayein aur us khandan ke maali mamlaat mushkil hone ki bana par unke liye unki kafaalat karna mushkil ho jata to woh unhein kheton mein chor dete taake raat ki thand ya wehshi darinde se khatam kar dein,aur qabeele ke afraad ke zameer mein zara barabar khalish na hoti.

Qadeem cheeni kahawat hai ke apni biwi ki baaton ko khamoshi se suno lekin uski tasdeeq na karo.


Qadeem roman maashre mein aurat ki halat


 

Kitab”Qasat-ul-Hazarta”ke molif likhte hain.Bachi ki pedaish napaseenda thi,balke maroof adaat ke mutabiq baap ko ijazat thi ke agar uske ghar naqas ul khilqat bacha ya bachi peda ho to usse maar de,uske baraks unhein shadeed rughbat hoti thi ke unke haan nareena aulad peda ho.

Roman maashre mein aurat is qadar majboor thi ke usse khud ke kisi maamle par koi ikhtiyar nahin tha, mard jis tarah chahta uske saath sulook karta,tamam ikhtiyarat aur faisle akele mard ke haath mein the,usse uske khandan ke tamam afrad par mukamal haqooq hasil the, uske ikhtiyarat mein se yeh bhi tha ke kisi tehmat ki bana par apni biwyon ko qatal karne ka hukum saadar kar sakta tha,usse apni bahuon aur beton ki bahuon par bhi mukamal ikhtiyar tha ke woh jisse chahe bech de ya azab de ya mulk badar karde ya qatal karde,aurat ka kaam mahaz yehi tha ke woh sune aur ataat kare aur bajale aaye,usse aitraz aur mutalba karne ka koi haq nahin tha,woh meeraas se mahroom rakhi jati, kyunki meeraas bare bete ko di jati,balke mamla yahan tak pohnch chuka tha ke aadmi ke ikhtiyar mein tha ke khandan mein kisi aese shaks ko daakhil karde jo khandan mein se na ho aur apne beton mein se jisse chahe bech kar nikaal de.


Qadeem younai maashre mein aurat ki halat


 

Younai maashre mein aurat ka maqaam sabqa qomon ke haan aurat ke maqaam se kuch zyada behtar nahin tha,maqaam zaat yahan tak tha ke usse aareetan maang liya jata.

Tar welong kehta hai.Zyada bache janne wali aurat uske shohar se aareeta li jati taake woh kisi aur mard se mulk ke liye bache peda kare, wohs saqaafat se mahroom thi,is darje tak haqeer thi ke usse napaak aur shetan kaha jata tha,aesa koi nizam nahin tha jo uski hifazat karta,woh meeraas se mahroom thi,usse khud ke maal mein tasaroof ka koi ikhtiyar nahin tha, azadi aur izhar e raye se woh yaqsar mahroom thi, mard ki hukumarani ke saamne poori zindagi jhuki hui,usse talaaq ka mutalba karne ka bhi haq hasil nahin tha balke woh mutalqa mard ka haq tha.

Balke unke haan mamla yahan tak pohnch chuka tha ke unke baaz mufkareen ne mutalba kar dala tha ke:Zaroori hai ke lafz aurat ko ghar mein qaid kya jaye jis tarah aurat ke jism ko ghar mein qaid kya ta hai.

Younaion ke haan aurat ek inteha darje ki pasti mein giri pari makhlooq thi.

Kitab “Tamadun Arab”ke mollif likhte hain amooman qadeem younani log aurat ko ek haqeer cheez khayal karte jiska nasal barhaane aur ghar ke kaam kaaj ke ilawa koi faida nahin tha, agar aurat kisi badshakal bache ko janam deti to aurat ko khatam kar dete.

Mashoor Khateeb Adeeb Demonstan ne aurat ki halat ki yom e manzar kashi ki hai ke:Hum zaani aurton se lizat ki khatir taluq rakhte hain aur apni roz mara ke sehat ki khatir aurton se dostiyaan rakhte hain aur shadi isliye karte hain ke woh hamare jaiz bete peda karen.

Jis maashre ke mazhab log yeh baaten karte ho is maashre mein aurat ka kya maqaam hoga?


Qadeem yahoodi maashre mein aurat ki haalat


Yahoodion ke haan aurat gunah ki jar aur uski bunyaad thi,jis tarah toraat ki nusos mein warid huwa hai ke aurat khata ki ibtada hai, aur uske sabab se sab gumrah hogaye.

Chanacha yahoodi maashre mein aurat ki halat bhi achi nahin thi,unke qawaneen ne aurat ke maqaam ko intehai neeche gira dia tha,aur usse daraya tha.

Jaisa ke safar ul jama mein hai.

25 maine apne dil ko mutawaja kya ke jano aur tafteesh karon aur hikmat aur khud ko daryafat karoon aur samjhoon ke badi hamaaqat hai aur hamaaqat dewangi.

26 tab maine mout se talagh tar us aurat ko paya jiska dil phanda aur jaal hai aur jiske haath hathkaryaan hain.Jisse Khuda khush hai woh usse bach jayega lekin gunahgaar uska shikaar hoga.

Baap ko apne khandan par mutalq hukumarani hasil thi,baal khasoos aurton par,woh jisse chahta uske saath unka baya kar deta,aur jisse chahta usse aurton haba kar deta,usse ikhtiyaar hasil tha ke agar woh unhein bechna chahe to bech bhi sakta hai,jaisa ke safar ul kharoj isha 21 mein fikra 7 se fiqra 11 tak warid huwa hai

Kitab Qisstul hazara ke molif likhte hain baap ko khandan ke tamam afraad par mukamal ikhtiyar hasil tha,jaise koi khatam nahin kar sakta tha,chanacha zameen uski milkiat thi,aur uske beton ko zinda rehne ka ikhtiyar ussi surat mein tha jab woh uske hukum ki ataat karen,baap hi hukumat tha,agar woh ghareeb hota to usse ikhtiyar tha ke woh apni beti ko balooghat se pehle bech de taake woh kisi ki londi ban jaye,isi tarah usse mutaliq haq hasil tha ke woh jiske saath chahta uske saath uski shadi kara deta,agarcha basa oqat woh apne haq se tanazil karta aur usse mutalba karta ke woh is shadi par razi ho jaye.

Jab yahoodi aurat shadi karti to uski walayat uske baap se uske shohar ki taraf muntaqil ho jati,aur woh aurat us mard ki milkiyat ban jati jis tarah ghar,ghulam, londi aur degar maal uski milkiyat hote kyunki us par toraat ke aur amar dilalat karte hain,jaisa ke safarulkharojashah 20 mein fiqra 17 mein hai.

Is par mastazad yeh ke yahoodi sharyat ne beti ko apne baap ke turka se mahroom kar dia tha, jab uske baap ki nareena aulad ho jis tarah sifar adad mein eshaah 27 may fikra number aath mein hai:Agar koi mard mar jaye aur us ka koi beta na ho to tum uski milkiyat ko uski beti ki taraf muntaqil kardo.

Aur unke haan biwi apne shohar ki wafaat ke baad khudbakhud apne shohar ke bhai ki tataf muntakil hojati,chahe woh raazi ho ya na ho,aela yeh ke woh khud usse buri hojaye,jis tarah kitaab Muqadas ahed e qadeem mein aaya hai .

Agar kayi bhai mil kar sath rehte hon aur un mein se ek be aulaad jaye,to uski biwi kisi ajnabee se baya na kare,balke uske shohar ka bhai uske paas jaakar usse apni biwi bana le,aur shohar ke bhai ka jo haq hai woh uske saath adaa kare.

Jab aurat haiza hojati to woh na uske saath khate na peete aur na hi uske saath raat guzarte,balke usse alehdgi ikhtiyar karte yahan tak ke woh paak ho jati,is maamle mein unke qawaneen kehte hain.Jis din aurat ko mehsoos ho ke uske mahana ayaam shuru ho chuke hain,ussi din se woh napaak hojati hai, agarcha bazahir koi nishan na bhi ho,aur shohar par lazim hai ke woh usse na chuye,yahan tak ke apni chotti ungli se bhi nahin,aur usse ijazat nahin ke apni biwi ko koi cheez pakraye, agarcha woh cheez lambi kyun na ho,aur na hi uske liye jaiz hai ke woh usse koi cheez le,aur apne haath se uski taraf koi cheez phenkna aur uske baraks bhi jaiz nahin,aur shohar ko ijazat nahin ke woh apni biwi ke saath ek hi dastarkhan par khaye,aela yeh ke shohar aur biwi ke thaal ke darmiyaan koi rukawat ho,aur shohar ko ijazat nahin ke apni biwi ke bache huwe paani ke glass mein se piye,aur dono ko ek hi charpayi par raat guzarne ki bhi ijazat nahin,aur na hi ek hi baghi mein sawaar hone ki ijazat hai,aur na hi ek kashti mein sawaar hone ki,aur jab dono ek hi jagah par kaam kar rahe hon to unke liye shart hai ke ek doosre na chuwein,aur agar uska shohar beemar hojaye aur uske ilawa uski khidmat ke liye koi doosra na ho to usse ijazat hai ke woh apne shohar ki khidmat kare,lekin us waqt tak jab tak woh usko baghair rukawat ke chuwe,aur agar aurat beemar hojaye to shohar ko ijazat nahin ke woh uski khidmat kare,agarcha usse na chuwe,aur jab aurat bacha peda karti hai to woh napaak ho jati hai,agar woh bacha larka hai to saat din tak napaak rehti hai aur agar larki hai to choda din tak napaak rehti hai,woh bete ki pedaish ke chaalis din baad ghusul karegi aur beti pedaish ke us din baad ghusul karegi.


Qadeem maseeh maashre mein aurat ki halat


 

Qaroon wasti mein kaneesa ke pop ne aurat ke maamle mein hadse zyada mubalgha kar dia tha,woh istarah ke woh log aurat ko khata ki asal,gunah ki jar aur pareshaniyon ka asal sabab qaraar dete jo tamam insaniyat ko pohncha.

Issi bana par mard aur aurat ke darmiyaan taluqaat najus hogaye jin se bachna waajib tha,agarcha woh nikah aur qanooni aqad ke zariye se hi kyun na hon.

Tartaleen kehta hai:Aurat insan ke nafs ki taraf shetan ke dakhil hone ka darwaza hai,aur ussi ne mard ko laanat kiye huwe darakht ki taraf dhakela,woh Allah Tala ke qawaneen torne wali hai,aur Allah ki soorat jo mard ki shakal mein hai usse bigaarne wali hai.

Danmaar ki kaatab Weith Knudesen karoon wasta mein aurat ki haalat ki wazaahat karte huwe likhte hain ke:Kethulak mazhab ki rehnumai ki wajah se aurat par intehai mahdood tawaja thi jo aurat ko doosre darje ki makhlooq shumaar karta tha.

Bols Rasool kehta hai:Mein chahta hoon ke tum jaan lo ke har mard ka sar maseeh hai,aur aurat ka sar mard hai,aur maseeh ka sar Allah hai,bilashaba mard ke liye laiq nahin ke woh apne sar ko dhaanpe,kyunki woh Allah ki surat aur uski buzrugi hai,jahan tak aurat ka mamla hai to woh mard ki buzrugi hai isliye ke mard aurat se nahin hai balke aurat mard se hai,aur isiliye bhi ke mard aurat ke liye nahin peda kya gaya balke aurat mard ke liye peda ki gayi hai, isliye farishton ki wajah se aurat ke sar par hukumaran hona chahiye.

Maseeh taleemat aurat ke upar laazm karti thin ke woh mard ke saamne jhuke aur uski andhi ataat kare,bolas kehta hai:Ae aurton!Tum apne mardon ke liye jhuk jao jis tarah Rab ke liye jhukti ho isliye ke mard aurat ka sar hai,jis tarah maseeh kaneesa ka sar hai.

Angrez musannif barnadsha kehta hai:Jis lamhe aurat shadi karti hai angrezi qanoon ke mutabiq iski tamam tar milkiat uske shohar ki milkiat ban jati hai.

Is par mastazaad yeh ke yeh shadi hamesha hamesha rehti,jaise deen aur qanoon musalat karta,chanacha agar zojeen ke darmiyan nafrat aur baghs kitna hi barh kyun na jaye,mashakil aur pareshaniyaan kitni hi zyada kyun na hojayein lekin talaaq nahin ho sakti,balke woh dono jismani tor par alehdgi ikhtiyar karenge,jis ka zahiri nateeja hai ke mard ajnabee aurton ke saath taluqaat qaim karega aur chup kar dostiyaan kare ga,isi tarah aurat bhi apne liye chup kar dost banayegi.

Isi tarah agar miyaan biwi mein se kisi ek ki wafaat hojati to doosra jo zinda hota usse dubara shadi ki ijazat nahin thi,jiska nateeja yeh nikla ke aurat ka maqaam gir gaya,uski aehmiyat khatam hogayi,aur balaakhir naye maghribi maashre mein uska bura rad e amal samne aaya ke unke mufkareen aur mazhab logon ne yeh mutalba kar dia ke maashre ke tamam afraad mein se har fard,chahe woh mard ho ya aurat,usse mukamal haqooq aur mutaliq azadi di jaye,baghair kisi qaid ke,jiska badtareen nateeja wohi nikla jis mein aaj ke yeh maashre reh rahe hain ke ikhlaqi pasti hai,khandan toot phoot ka shikaar hain,yeh sab kaneesa ke tashadood hai ja sakhti aur zalimana aur fitrat se mutsadim qawaneen ka nateeja hai.

REFERENCE:
Book: “Islam mein Aurat ka Maqaam”
by Dr. Abdur Rahman bin Abdul Kareem Al- Sheha
Zamana E Jahalat Mein Aurat Ka Maqam Kya Tha ? By Qari Suhaib Ahmed Meer Muhammadi

Status of Women throughout the Ages:

 


Women in the Pre-Islamic Societies and Civilizations


Women suffered great injustices in the pagan Arab society and were exposed to diverse kinds of humiliation prior to the mission of the Messenger of Allah. They were treated like material property to be disposed of at the whim of the male guardian. They were not entitled to inherit from their parents or husbands. Arabs believed inheritance should only be granted to those who had martial abilities, like being able to ride a horse, fight, gain war booties and help protect the tribe and clan territory. Since women in the pagan Arab society did not generally have these qualities, they were themselves inherited like any moveable commodity after the death of an indebted husband. If the deceased husband had adult sons from other marriages, the oldest son amongst them had the right to add her to his household, just as a son inherits other chattels of his deceased father. She was unable to leave the house of her stepson unless she paid a ransom.

As a general practice, men had the freedom to acquire as many wives as they desired with no set limits. There was no system of law and justice that would forbid a man from committing any injustice towards his wives. Women had no right to choose, or even consent to being chosen as a partner for marriage; they were simply given away. Women were forbidden to remarry if a husband divorced them.

In the pre-Islamic era of Arabia, fathers commonly became extremely angry and disgraced with the birth of a female child into their family. Some considered it an evil omen. Allah, the Exalted, describes the father’s reception of the news about the birth of a daughter:

“When the news of (the birth of) a female is brought to any of them, his face becomes dark, and he is filled with inward grief! He hides himself from the people because of the evil (and shame) of that which he has been informed. Shall he keep her with dishonor, or bury her in the dirt? Certainly, evil is their decision…” [16:59]

Women were not even able to practice some of the most natural of rights. For instance eating certain types of foods was allowed only for males. Allah, the Exalted, records this in the Glorious Qur’an:

“And they say: What is in the bellies of such cattle (whether milk or fetus) is for the male alone, and forbidden from our females, however, if it was born dead, then all have shares therein…” [6:139]

The hatred of female babies prompted Arabs to bury them alive. Allah, the Exalted, states in the Glorious Qur’an with reference to the Day of Requital:

 “And when the female buried alive shall be questioned: for what sin was she killed?” [81:8-9]

Some fathers used to bury their female children alive if the child was leprous, lame or with birth defect. Allah states in the Glorious Qur’an:

 “And kill not your children for fear of poverty. We provide for them and you. Surely, the killing of them is a great sin.” [17:31]

The one honor afforded to women during the pre-Islamic era was the protection of her person, family and tribe, and the revenge against any who humiliated or dishonored her, but even this was more for male pride, dignity and tribal honor than a concern for the female gender.

This situation of women in the Arab society led Umar ibn al- Khattab, the second Caliph of the Muslims (4) to say, as reported by Muslim:

 “By Allah, we didn’t use to think that women had anything until Allah revealed about them what He revealed in the Qur’an, and distributed to them what He distributed…” [Bukhari #4629 & Muslim #31]


Women in Indian Society


In Indian society women were treated generally as maids or slaves as if they had no will or desire of their own. They had to follow their husbands in all matters. Women were given as payment for loss to a gambling opponent. To show devotion, they were forced to burn themselves alive by jumping onto the funeral pyre of their husbands after their death. This practice, called “sutti” continued until the end of the 17th century when this custom was outlawed in spite of the dismay it caused the Hindu religious leaders. Although outlawed formally, sutti was widely practiced until the end of 19th century and still continues in some of the remote areas of India. In certain regions of India, women are offered to the priests as concubines, or as prostitutes to be exploited. In others, they were sacrificed to the Hindu gods to please them or seek rain. Some Hindu laws even declare that:

“The predestined patience, the blowing wind or tornadoes, death, hellfire, poison, snakes and fire are no less evil than women”.

It is also stated in Hindu religious books, that:

 “When Manna [the Hindu god of creation] created women he imposed onto them the love of bed, seats, decoration [make- up], filthy lust (of all types and kinds), anger, rebellion against honor and dignity and evil attitudes, behavior and conduct.”

In the teachings of Manna Herma Sistra concerning women, one can read:

“A woman may live without a choice regardless of whether she is a little girl, a young lady or a mature woman. A young girl is under the command and choice of her father. A married woman is under the command and choice of her husband. A widow is under the command and choice of her male children, and she may never become independent (after the death of her husband). A widow may never remarry after the death of her husband, but rather, she must neglect all that she likes in terms of food, clothes, and makeup until she dies. A woman may not own or possess anything, as whatever she may gain or acquire shall go straight and immediately to the ownership of her husband.”

In some rare cases, a woman had several husbands at the same time. No doubt this made her as a prostitute¹ in society.

‘Refer ¹ to ‘Hindu Inter-caste Marriage in India”, Chapter 3 [Forms of Marriage] part 2 [Polyandry], by Haripada Chakraborti.


 Women in Chinese Society


Women in Chinese society occupied a low and degraded status. They were customarily assigned the most despised and least important jobs and positions. The male child was looked upon as a “gift” from the gods, and treated accordingly. As for the female child, she had to endure multiple hardships, like the binding of her feet in order to cripple her from running and other customs. A Chinese proverb says:

“Listen to your wife, but never believe what she says.”

The status of women in the Chinese society was not much better than that of the pagan pre-Islamic Arab and the Indian societies.


Women in Greek Society


 Among the Greeks, women were degraded to the extent that men claimed that women were nothing but the epitome of evil. There was no system to protect women in that society. They were deprived of the rights to education; bought and sold like any other commodity; deprived of the right of inheritance; and considered as minors with no rights to make any transactions regard to possessions and wealth. Women were subjected to the will of men throughout their lives. Divorce was an absolute right of men. The common situation of women in the society led some Greek thinkers to say:

“Woman’s name must be locked up in the house, as it is the case with her body.”

Gustave Le Bon, the French thinker, stated about the status of women in the Greek society in his book “Arab Civilization”:

“Greeks, in general, considered women to be the lowest creatures of the low. They were useful for nothing other than reproduction and taking care of the household affairs. If a woman gave birth to an ‘ugly, retarded or handicapped’ child, the man could take the liberty to kill the (unwanted or undesirable) child.”

Demosthenes, the well-known Greek orator and thinker said:

“We Greek men enjoy the company of prostitutes for sexual pleasure; ‘girl-friends’ and ‘sweet-hearts’, to care of our daily needs, and we marry to get ‘legitimate’ children.”

From this licentious double standard, and depraved morality, we can see what fortune women had in such a society based on the statement issued by one of their top rank, well-known thinkers.


Woman in Roman Society


A woman in Roman society was also looked upon as an inferior being that could not run her own affairs. All authority was in the hands of men who totally dominated all private and public affairs. Men even had the authority to sentence their wives to death in certain cases when accused of specific crimes. The authority of man over woman in the Roman society included the right to sell her, punish her with tortuous punishments, send her into exile or kill her. The woman in Roman society had to listen to and obey all commands given by the man. And they were deprived of the right of inheritance.


Woman in Jewish Society


Women in traditional Jewish society were not more fortunate than those previously described. In the Old Testament women were described as follows:

“I applied mine heart to know and to search, and to seek out wisdom, and the reason of things, and to know the wickedness of folly, even of foolishness and madness: And I find more bitter than death the woman, whose heart snares and nets, and her hands as bands…” [Ecclesiastes (7:25- 26)]

In the Septuagint, it says,

“And if a man sells his daughter to be a maidservant, she shall not go out as the menservants do. If she pleases not her master, who has betrothed her to himself, then shall he let her be redeemed: to sell her unto a strange nation he shall have no power, seeing he has dealt deceitfully with her. And if he had betrothed her unto his son, he shall deal with her after the manner of daughters. If he takes him another wife, her food, her raiment, and her duty of marriage, shall he not diminish. If he does not do these three unto her, then shall she go out free without money.” Exodus (21-7-11)]

Thus, if a Jewish woman got married, her guardianship was transferred from her father to her husband and she became as one of his possessions such as his house, his slave, his maidservant or his money or wealth.

Jewish teachings and laws deprived the girl of her father’s inheritance if the father had other male children. In the Old Testament, the Septuagint, it says:

 “And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, ‘If a man dies, and has no son, then ye shall cause his inheritance to pass unto his daughters’.” [Numbers (27:8)]

Moreover, Jewish men never slept in the same bed with a menstruating woman, or ate with her or drank with her. Jewish men used to isolate themselves fully from a menstruating woman until she was completely free from her menses.


Woman in Christian Society


Christian priests went to the extreme of considering the woman as the cause of “original sin” and the source of all catastrophes from which the entire world has suffered. For this very reason, the physical relationship between man and woman has traditionally been labeled as “filthy” or “dirty” even if it were officially done and performed within a legitimate marriage contract.

Saint Trotolian says:

“Woman is the Satan’s pathway to a man’s heart. Woman pushes man to the “Cursed Tree.” Woman violates God’s laws and distorts his picture (i.e. man’s picture).”

Wieth Knudesen, a Danish writer, illustrated the woman’s status in the middle ages saying:

“According to the Catholic faith, which considered the woman as a second class citizen, very little care and attention was given to her.”

In 1586 a conference was held in France to decide whether women should be considered as human beings or not. The conference came to a conclusion that:

“Woman is a human being, but she is created to serve man.”

Thus, the conference approved the rights for women as human beings, a matter that was previously in doubt and undecided! Moreover, those who attended the conference did not decide on full rights for the woman, but rather; she was a follower of man and a maidservant to him with no personal rights. This decision was in effect until 1938, when, for the first time, a decree was issued to abrogate all the laws that forbid a woman from conducting her own financial affairs directly and opening a bank account in her own name.

Europeans continued to discriminate against women and deprive them of their rights throughout the Middle-Ages. It is also surprising to know that English laws turned a blind eye to the selling of one’s wife! The rift between the sexes, men and women, continued to increase, so much so that women became fully under the control of men. Women were stripped completely of all their rights and whatever they owned. All that a woman owned belonged to her husband. For instance, until very recently women, according to the French law, were not considered capable of making their own financial decisions in their private ownership. We can read article 217 of the French law that states:

“A married woman has no right to grant, transfer, bond, own with or without payment, without her husband’s participation in the sale contract, or his written consent to it, regardless of whether the marriage contract stipulated that there should be a complete separation between the husband’s and wife’s possessions and ownership of various items.”

Despite all amendments and modifications, which occurred in these French laws, we can still see how these laws are affecting married French women. It is a form of civilized slavery.

Furthermore, a married woman loses her surname (family’s name) as soon as she enters into a marriage contract. A married woman shall carry the family name of her husband. This, of course, indicates that a married woman will only be a follower of her husband and she will even lose her personal identity.

Bernard Shaw, the well-known English writer says:

 “The moment a woman marries; all her personal possessions become her husband’s in accordance to the English law.”

Lastly, there is one more injustice that has been imposed upon the woman in the Western society which is that a marriage bond is made to last forever, in accordance with legal and religious teachings. There is no right of divorce (according to Catholicism, at least). Husband and wife are only separated from each other physically. This separation may have contributed to all sorts of social decay and corruption, such as having affairs, mistresses, boyfriends, girlfriends, as well as possibly prostitution, and homosexual and lesbian relations. Moreover, a surviving widow is not given the chance to remarry and lead a normal married life after the death of her husband.

No doubt, what is called modern western civilization and which endeavors to dominate the globe, is indebted to the Greek and Roman traditions for its civil foundations, and to the Judaic- Christian traditions for its ideological and religious foundations. The abuses mentioned above collectively led, due to gradual and eventual effects of technological and social modernization, to the expected and natural reaction: movements demanding women’s rights in the society, led by thinkers, educators, lobbyists, and human rights and women rights activists. The pendulum was set to swing in the other direction, and they demanded absolute equal rights and liberation from male chauvinism and abuses. In many of the modern secular societies, women are indeed given numerous equal rights, but at the same time, equality has exposed them to the molestation and double standards rampant in the immoral materialistic culture that markets her as an object of sexual desire, for sale, contract or rent. The ensuing breakdown of the family unit, and the widespread sexual immorality, abortion, homosexuality, and criminal deviancy from sexual liberation, has led to some counter reactions in the society, especially from the religious conservatives, but apparently, the trends are too strong to turn the tide back.

In this global context, and from this historical legacy, we will present the salient features of women’s rights in Islam and shed light on some common misconceptions in order to show the superiority of following Allah’s guidance rather than men and women guiding each other by whim and desire.

 

REFERENCE:
Book: “Women in Islam & Refutation of some common Misconceptions”
by Dr. Abdur Rahman bin Abdul Kareem Al- Sheha
Translated by: Abu Salman Deya ud-Deen Eberle.

 

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