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13. Islami qawaneen ke mutaabiq emaal ki darja-e-bandi [Classification of actions based on the Islamic law (Shari’a)]

Pehli fasal Islami qawaneen ke mutaabiq emaal ki darja-e-bandi

Islami qawaneen ke tehet   tamaam insani e’imaal ki mandarja zel iqsaam mein darja-e-bandi ki jati hai, Taake ek kaam par jaaiz aur na jaiz hone ke e’itbaar se hukum lagaya ja sake.

 

  1. Farz: Yeh mukallf theraane jaane ke aalaa tareen satah hai, Uski tareef yeh hai ke: Woh kaam jis ka shari’yat ne qatai daleel ke saath baghair kisi shaba karne ka lazmi mutaalba kya ho, Jaise: Namaz, Roza, Aur Qur’an parhne ka hukum.

 Hukum: Iska hukum yeh hai ke isse karna lazmi hai, Aur uske baja laane waale ko ajar aur tark karne waale ko saza di jayegi.

 

  1. Must’ahib: Har woh kaam ke jis ka shari’yat ne lazmi tor par hukum nahin diya, Chunancha uske baja laane waale ko ajar diya jaye ga aur tark karne waala gunnahgaar nahin hoga, Jaise: Namaz se muswaak karna.
  1. Mubaah: Har woh kaam ke na to uske karne ka sawaab milta hai, Aur na hi uske tarak par saza, Jaise chalna, Sawaar hona waghaira jin ki humein aam roz marra ki zindagi mein aadat hai.
  1. Mkroh: Har woh kaam ke jisse shari’yat ne lazmi tor par mana nahin kya, Chunancha hukum ko baja laate huwe uske tark karne waale ko sawaab diya jaye ga aur uska karne waala gunnahgaar na hoga, Lekin usse aur uske taqaazon se door rehna, Aur usse apna ne se garez karna hi behtar hai, Jabke uske karne waale ko sawaab nahin milta lekin basaa oqaat uska takraar aur us ke aadat Allah Ta’ala ki hadood ki pamaali aur uske Haram karda kaamon ke Artikaab karne ka sabab ban jaate hain, Aur uske mkroh hone ke bawajood uske fayil ke gunaahgaar na hone ke peeche sabab yeh hai ke fel ke shara’a mukarwa hone ke bawajood basa oqaat shakhs ki haqeeqi zindagi mein us mkroh kaam karne ka intehai zaroori taqaaza hota hai, Maslan: Allah-Taba’arik’-Wa-Ta’ala ne talaaq ko mukarwa qaraar diya hai lekin usse Haram qaraar nahin diya taake bawaqt zaroorat un par was’at ho.
  1. Haram: Har woh kaam ke jisse shari’yat ne qatai daleel ke zari’ye, Jis mein koi shaba na ho uske karne se lazmi tor par mana kya ho, Chunancha uska karne waala gunnahgaar hoga, Aur hukum ko baja laate huwe uske tarak karne waala sawaab ka haqdaar hoga, Jaise: Sharaab peene ki harmat.

         Halal aur Haram ke darmiyaan farq

 

Halal ka ilim aur Haram ki tafreeq, Islam ke mazboot aur E’emaan  ke qawi hone ki alaamat hai,  Uska taluq dil ke afa’al ke saath hai.

 

Tamaam cheezon ka bunyadi asool yeh hai ke woh mubaah aur halal hain, Haram sirf wahi hai jiski hurmat ki koi nas waarid huwi ho, Kyunki halat-o-harmat Allah Ta’ala ka haq hai isliye ke woh khaaliq, Muabi, Sahoolatein aur nematein dene waala hai,  Woh apne bandon ke liye jo chahta hai halal karta hai, Aur jo chahta hai Haram karta hai. Lekin Allah Ta’ala ki apne bandon par rehmat aur un par uska fazal hai ke usne halat-o-harmat kuch maqool-o-munaasib asbaab aur wajoohaat ki bana par ki hai, Jis ka faida khud insanon ko pohnchta hai, Chunancha usne sirf wahi halal kya hai jo pakeeza ho aur sirf wahi Haram kya hai jo napaak ho.

 

Fasal ka ek darja-e-bandi se doosri darja-e-bandi ki taraf muntaqil hona

 

  1. Jaiz fel ka jaaiz ki darja-e-bandi se Haram ki taraf muntaqil hona aur uske baraks.

Basa oqaat jaiz kaam, Haram ki taraf muntaqil ho jata hai, Jab aise asbaab paaye jaayein ke jin ki bana par woh kaam acha aur nifson ke liye khush kin hone ki bajaye napaak aur nifs ke liye nuqsaan de ho, Maslan sarkon par ghoomne ka sharay’i hukum yeh hai ke woh jaaiz hai, Lekin basa oqaat yeh kaam jaaiz ki darja bandi se Haram ki darja-e-bandi ki taraf muntaqil ho jata hai, Jab sharay’i haakim, Majaaz hukumuraan kisi shehar ke liye yeh hukum saadir kare ke aman-o-amaan ki soorat-e-haal ko mid-e-nazar rakhte huwe kuch sarkon ya sheharon mein das baje ke baad ghoomna phirna mana hai, Jo ek shakhs ke liye nuqsaan de saabit ho sakta hai.

Aur basa oqaat ek Haram kaam hurmat ki darja-e-bandi se nikal kar jaaiz ki darja-e-bandi mein chala jata hai, Jab nfs ko nuqsaan se bachana zaroori ho, Jaise: Sharaab noshi Haram hai, Lekin kabhi yeh jaaiz hoti hai maslan: Ek shakhs sehra mein raasta kho betha hai, Aur qareeb hai ke piyaas se hilaak hojaye, Aur uske Saamne sharaab ke ilawaa kuch nahin, To us waqt woh sirf  itni miqdaar pee sakta hai jisse khud ko halaakat se mehfooz rakhe aur usse tajaawaz na kare.

 

  1. Waajib fel ka waajib darja-e-bandi se Haram ki darja-e-bandi ki taraf muntaqil hona aur uske baraqas.

Basa oqaat farz kaam waajib ki darja-e-bandi se Haram ki darja-e-bandi ki taraf muntaqil ho jata hai, Sabiqa misaal ke tarz par uski tashreeh yeh hai ke maslan: Namaz farz hai, Lekin kabhi Haram hoti hai, Jaise ek insan shadeed zilziley ke doraan apne ghar mein Namaz parh raha hai, Aur Namaz parhne waale ko yaqeen hai ke agar woh us ghar se jaldi se na nikla to hilaakat yaqeeni hai, Isi taraah kisi shakhs par zulm karte huwe uski taang kaatna Haram hai, Lekin doctor mareez ko isi soorat mein bacha sakta hai ke uski taang kaat de warna woh mareez hilaak hojayega, To aisi soorat mein doctor par farz hojata hai ke uski taang kaat de, Aur agar usne na kiya to woh gunnahgaar hoga ho aur usse mareez ki taang na kaatne ki saza di jaye gi.

  1. Mkroh woh kaam ka karaahat ki darja-e-bandi se istehbaab ki taraf muntaqil hona aur mustahib fel ka istehbaab ki darja-e-bandi se Haram ki darja-e-bandi ki taraf muntaqil hona.

Basa oqaat mukarwa fel karaahat ki darja-e-bandi  se istehbaab, Balke basa oqaat waajib aur farz ki taraf muntaqil hota hai, Maslan talaaq ka fel shari’yat ke hukum mein mkroh hai, Allah Ta’ala usse napasand karta hai lekin basa oqaat biwi ki talaaq na dena kisi shara’a-e-mamnoon kaam ki taraf le jata hai, Jisse talaaq ke zari’ye hi khatam kiya ja sakta hai, Maslan: Ek aurat iffat-o-paakdaamni mein kotah ho aur insan uski eslaah se aajiz aa chuka ho, To hum yahan kahen ge ke afzal yeh hai ke aap usse talaaq de dein aur istarah ek mukarwa kaam mustahib ho jaye ga.

Aur kabhi mustahib kaam Haram ki darja-e-bandi ki taraf muntaqil ho jata hai maslan: Muswaak karna mustahib kaam hai,  Aur kabhi yeh mukarwa hota hai, Balke Haram bhi ho sakta hai, Jab insan ki daant girne ke qareeb hon, Aur usse yaqeen ho ke agar usne muswaak kiya to uske daant gir jayen ge, To is soorat-e-haal mein muswaak se gurez karna waajib hai, Kyunki shari’yat-e-Islamiya mein qaaida hai ke” Na nuqsaan do aur na nuqsaan uthao”.

Khulaasa

Mundarja bala bayaan ka khulaasa yeh hai ke Islam ek andha Deen nahin hai, Jo na dekhta hai aur na hi usse logon ke halaat ka andaza hai, Haqeeqat yeh hai ke andhera dushmanon ke dilon mein hai, Jo Islam ke mutaliq shuhbaat aur jhooti baaten phelaate rehte hain, Woh Allah Ta’ala ke dor ko bujhana chahte hain aur Allah Ta’ala apne noor ko poora karne wala hai agarcha kaafron ko yeh napasand hi kyun na ho.

REFERENCE:
Book: “Islam mein Aurat ka Maqaam”
by Dr. Abdur Rahman bin Abdul Kareem Al- Sheha

Classification of actions based on the Islamic law (Shari’a)

All human actions are divided according to the Islamic law in the following categories, in order to clarify whether an action is considered permissible or prohibited:

  1. Obligatory (Fard): It is what Islamic law imposes on people, without any doubt, such as the obligation of prayer, of fasting, of Zakah (annual obligatory charity that the rich gives to the poor). These actions are obligatory, and whoever does them will be rewarded, while whoever neglects them will be punished.
  2. Preferable (Mustahab): They are the actions that the Islamic law encourages people to do without having made them obligatory. Whoever does them will be rewarded, but whoever neglects them is not considered to have sinned, so he is not punished. Such actions are to brush one’s teeth with the Siwak (a small piece of wood with bristles, like a brush) before prayer.
  3. Permissible (Mubah): They are the acts which neither whoever does is rewarded nor the one who neglects is punished, such as walking, using the car or an airplane and any other everyday actions.
  4. Repugnant (Makrooh): They are acts abstinence from which is encouraged by the Islamic Law, but there is no prohibition on them. So whoever abstains from them is rewarded, but the one who does them is not considered to have sinned and he is not punished. It is preferred to abstain from these acts and whatever may lead to them, but he who does them has not sinned. But the repetition of such actions and the habit of them leads to the violation of the limits that have been set by Allah and to the commission of an act which Allah has forbidden. The reason behind the fact that such actions are not considered sins, even though they are repugnant, is that sometimes it may be necessary to commit them. For example, Allah, the Almighty, hates divorce, but has not banned it as a mercy for His slaves, to release them if life circumstances require so.
  5. Forbidden (Haram): They are the actions the Islamic Law forbids. So, whoever does them is considered to have sinned and is punished, while whoever abstains from them is rewarded. Such acts include the prohibition of alcohol consumption and adultery.
Distinction between the permissible and the forbidden

To know the permissible and distinguish it from the forbidden is the backbone of Islam and the proof of faith, and it is connected to the actions of the heart, as it is connected to the actions of the body. The basic rule is that every act is permitted, and there are no impermissible acts except those specifically mentioned in the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad as forbidden. The permissible acts are something pure, good, while the forbidden ones are something evil, obscene. And it is the Right of Allah, since He is the Creator, the Good-Doer and the Disposer of His slaves’ affairs, to permit whatever He wants for His slaves and to forbid whatever He wants. But Allah, as a mercy from Him to His slaves, has made the legalization and the forbiddance of actions for logical causes, based on the benefit for people. Therefore, Allah has not permitted anything but good, and has not forbidden anything but evil.

Moving a deed from one category to another
  1. Moving from the permissible to the forbidden and vice versa:

A permissible deed can be transferred to the category of the prohibited if there is a reason that makes this deed instead of pleasing and good for the soul a bad and vile act that harms the soul. For example, while walking on the streets is a permissible act, it may be forbidden if the president of a country has set a command of curfew for some time for the safety of the citizens. A forbidden deed may also be transferred to the category of the permissible if there is a reason that makes this deed necessary for a man’s life to be preserved. For example, drinking alcohol is a forbidden action, but it may be permissible if a man is lost in the desert and is going to die of thirst while he has nothing available to drink but alcohol, in which case he may drink as much as needed in order to ensure his survival, without, however, transgressing this limit.

  1. Moving from the obligatory to the forbidden and vice versa:

An obligatory deed may be moved to the category of the forbidden and a forbidden deed may be moved to the category of the obligatory. For example, prayer is an obligatory deed, but it may become forbidden if a man is praying inside his house during an earthquake and it is certain that he will die unless he gets out of the house quickly. On the other hand, to attack someone and cut his leg is forbidden, but if a doctor has to cut a patient’s leg to save his life, then this action becomes obligatory to him and if he does not do it he is considered to have committed a sin and a crime, for which he must be punished.

  1. Moving from the repugnant to the category of the preferable or from preferable to the category of the forbidden:

A repugnant deed may move to the category of the preferable, even to that of the obligatory. For example, divorce is in essence a repugnant deed, which Allah detests, but in some cases not to give one’s wife a divorce can lead to forbidden deeds that the husband cannot prevent unless he gives a divorce, like when a wife is immoral and the husband cannot bring her back to the straight path. In this case it is preferable that the husband should give divorce to such a woman. Consequently, the repugnant action becomes preferable.

A preferable deed may also be moved to the category of the forbidden. For example, to clean one’s teeth with As-Siwak is a preferable action. But it may become repugnant, or even forbidden, when, for example, one’s teeth are about to fall and he knows that this will happen if he cleans them with As- Siwak. In this case to clean one’s teeth with As-Siwak is opposing the Islamic rule ‘not to harm, or cause any harm to anybody, not even yourself.”

Conclusion:

Based on what we have explained above, we conclude that Islam is not a blind religion that does not see or assess the circumstances of the everyday affairs of people. The blindness is in fact in the hearts of the enemies of Islam, who have no other purpose with the lies they invent against Islam but to put out the light of Allah with their mouths, and verily, Allah will complete His Light, even if the disbelievers do not like that. Maybe, dear reader, you have understood that Islam is not a religion of injustice, but it is a religion of justice, and as one of the Names of Allah is “Al-‘Adl The Just”, the estimation of whether an action is forbidden or permissible in Islam is based on justice and not on blind judgement, while every form of injustice is forbidden in Islam. 

REFERENCE:

Book: “Women in Islam & Refutation of some common Misconceptions”
by Dr. Abdur Rahman bin Abdul Kareem Al- Sheha
Translated by: Abu Salman Deya ud-Deen Eberle.

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