Sections
< All Topics
Print

02. Ehd-e-Nabwi se qabal waraasat ki taqseem kay qawaneen.

Ehad -e- Nabwi se Qabal waraasat ki Taqseem ke Qawaaneen

Islam ke qawaaneen -e- waraasat ko jan-nay se pehlay zaroori hai ke hum bil-ikhtisaar waraasat ke un qawaaneen, qawaid aur usoolon se ta’aruf haasil karen jo islam ke zahoor se qabal doosri qomon mein paye jatay thay. un ka muqaarna aur muqaabla karne se aik Aqil qaari par yeh waze’h ho jaye ga ke Adal -o- insaaf kahan paaya jata hai. Islami ta’limaat mein ya doosri qomon key khud sakhta usoolon mein sab se pehlay syedna Moose علیہ السلام ki ummt yani mojooda zamane ke yahudion ( bani Israel ) key qawaaneen waarsat dekhte hain :


Yahodion ka qanoonِ -e- waraasat


Kalma -e- yahood hau’o se mushtaq hai jis ke lughwi maienay “rujoo karna hai” ussay Syedna Moose علیہ السلام ke is maqola se liya gaya hai إنا هدْنا إلیْك أیْ رجْعنا وتضرعْنا

yahudion se muraad woh log hain jo syedna Moose علیہ السلام ki pairwi ka daawa karte hain. syedna Yaqoob علیہ السلام ki nasal se honay ki wajah se inhen bani- Israel bhi kaha jata hai kyunkay abrani zabaan mein un ka naam Israel hi tha. baaz mo’arkheen ka kehna hai keh “yehood” syedna Yaqoob علیہ السلام ke aik betay ka naam tha aur is ki aulaad ko bani Yahuda kaha jata tha. phir is ki kasrat -e- nasal ki wajah se syedna Yaqoob علیہ السلام ki jumla aulaad ko yahodi kehna mashhoor ho gaya .(1)

 

[ Tareekh -ul- arab qabal -ul- islam : 95 / 6]

 

yahudion ki meeraas mein sirf maiyat ke betay, baap, chacha aur bhai hi waaris ho satkey hain yahodi mazhab mein aurat waaris nahi ban sakti chahay woh maiyat ki maa, beti, behan ya biwi hi kyun nah ho. un ke ki tafseel darj zail hai.

 

Beta:

 

Agar baap faut ho jaye to is ke waaris sirf betay hi hunge aur sab se baday betay ka hissa dosray beton ki nisbat dugna hoga. lekin agar woh sab barabar barabar taqseem par raazi ho jayen to yeh taqseem bhi durust hogi. (1)

[Al-ahkaam -ul- shar’iya 2/187]

 

Beti :

 

Agar shara’i waarison mein beti bhi mojood ho to woh sirf nan -o- nafqa ki mustahiq hogi woh bhi baloghat tak pounchanay ki had tak aur shadi karne ki soorat mein woh baap ki jaedaad mein se shadi ke akhrajaat ki hi mustahiq hogi.

Dekhieye islam ne aurat par kis qader ahsaan kiya hai keh beti ko betay ki mojoodgi mein للذكر مثل حظ الأنثین ) ke tehat waaris banaya hai agar woh akeli hai to woh aadhi jaedaad ki waaris hogi. jis ki tafseel ( beti ki waraasat ke baab mein aaye gi ) (2)

[Al-ahkaam -ul- shar’iya 3/145]

 

Maa:

 

Agar kisi aurat ka beta ya beti faut ho jaye to un ki maa apni aulaad ki jaedaad ki waris nahi hogi. balkay jaedaad ka waaris maiyat ka beta hoga. aulaad ki Adam mojoodgi mein maiyat ka baap waaris hoga. is ki Adam mojoodgi mein maiyat ka haqeeqi bhai is ka waaris hoga. lekin mutwafi ki maa bilkul waaris nahi hai.

Lakin islam mein maa apni aulaad ki jaedaad mein se kabhi teesray aur kabhi chhatay hissa ki waaris hoti hai. aur kabhi bhi waraasat se mahroom nahi hui. ( is ki tafseel إن شاءاللّٰه maa ki waraasat kay baab my aye gi) (1)

[Al-muqaarinaat -ul- muqaabilaat 236]

 

Biwi :

 

khawand biwi ki waraasat mein agar khawand pehlay faut ho jaye to biwi apne mutwafi khawand ki jaedaad mein se waaris nahi ban sakti aur agar biwi pehlay faut ho jaye to khawand is ki sab jaedaad ka tanha waaris hoga. biwi ki koi aulaad bhi is ki waaris nahi ban sakti (2)

[Al-muqaarinaat -ul- muqaabilaat 253, Al-ahkaam -ul- shar’iya 2/172]

 

lakin islami qanoon -e- waraasat mein khawand aur biwi dono aik dosray ke waaris bantay hain .

 

Wald -ul- zina:

 

yahudion ke haan wald -ul- zina ( haraam zaadah ) apnay maa baap ka shara’i waaris hota hai is ka darja un ke haqeeqi betay ki terhan hi hai. agar woh un ki pehli aulaad hai to woh dosray shara’i beton se dugna le ga. (3)

[Al-muqaarinaat -ul- muqaabilaat 253, Al-ahkaam -ul- shar’iya 2/173]

 

Lakin islami waraasat mein wald -ul- zina sirf apni maa hi ka waaris hota hai. agar kisi mutwafi ka koi waaris nah ho. yani baap, dada, beta, bhai ya chacha waghera mein se koi bhi nah ho. to is ki jaedaad ka waaris woh shakhas hoga jis ne sab se pehlay is ki jaedaad ko qabza mein le liya. teen saal tak is ke paas bator -e- amanat rahay gi. un teen salon mein agar koi waaris zahir nah howa to saari jaedaad is ki milkiyat tasawwur ki jaye gi ( qabza group bananay ka yahodi dastoor hai ) (4)

[Al-muqaarinaat -ul- muqaabilaat 253]

 

yeh hain yahudion ki waraasat ke baaz qawaneen jo mein ne mukhtasir tor par bayaan kiye hain. un se zahir hota hai keh yahodi mazhab mein maa, biwi, beti ya behan apne kisi Aziz ki waaris nahi ban sakti isi terhan khawand apni biwi ki saari jaedaad ka waaris hoga lekin biwi kisi soorat mein bhi apne mutwafi khaawand ki waaris nahi ban sakti isi terhan beta apni mutawaffi maa ka waaris hoga. lekin maa apne mutwafi betay ki waaris nahi hogi .

 


*Eesai’yat mein waraasat ke qawaneen*


Nasaar’a ( isaai ) woh log hain jo syedna eesa علیہ السلام ki pairwi ka daawa karte hain. mojooda Injeel mein kisi qisam ke aa’eyli, iqtisaadi ya mu’ashi qawaaneen ka koi tazkara nahi hai. balkay Injeel to Rohani aur ikhlaqi qadron jaisay pand -o- nasaa’eh ki haamil hai. is mein waraasat se mutaliq koi qanoon nahi hai chunancha ehal -e- knis’ah ne waraasat ke baray mein roman aur yahudion ke qanoon -e- waraasat par amal kiya hai. aur baaz doosri shari’yton se bhi istifada kiya hai. misaal ke tor par in dinon mulk -e- urdan ke nasar’a, islam ke qawaneen -e- waraasat par hi amal paira hain. urdun ke nasrani aalim dr Sulaiman marqas ne apni kitaab mein syedna eesa bin maryam علیھا السلام ke mut’aliq aik waqiya’h likha hai ke aik aadmi ne syedna eesa علیہ السلام ke paas iltimaas ki keh aap mere bhai se kahin ke hamaray waalid ki jaedaad mein se aadha hissa mujhe day, to jawab mein syedna eesa علیہ السلام ne farmaya:

” mujhe kisi ne jaedaad ki taqseem karne wala qaazi bana kar nahi bheja . (1)

[Al-mudkhil -ul- uloom -ul- qanoniyat 238]

 

Injeel mat’ta mein yeh darj hai” aap ko koi ghalat fehmi nahi honi chahiay ke mein kyun mab’oos kiya gaya hon. mein syedna Moosa علیہ السلام ke qawaneen ko mansookh karne nahi aaya, balkay mein inhen mukammal karne aaya hon taa ke inhen sacha saabit karoon aur is kitaab ( tauraat ) ke ehkaam is waqt tak jari rahen ge jab tak un ka maqsood poora nah ho jaye. (1)

[Mata baab no 5, ayat no 17، 19]

 

Is se bhi saaf zahir ho raha hai ke nasranion ke qawaneen waraasat ke tehat koi aurat waris nahi ban sakti aur palothi ka ladka saari ki saari jaedaad ka tanha waaris hoga .


*Islam se pehlay jahliat ke zamana mein arbo ka nizaam -e- waraasat*


Jazeer -tul- arab mein rehne walon ko amuman arab kaha jata hai tareekh batati hai ke jahliat ke zamaanay mein arbo ke aksar qabail aik jagah par mustaqil sukoonat Pazeer nahi hotay thay. balkay jahan pani aur ghaas waafar miqdaar mein paaya jata wahein rehna shuru kar dete thay. is ke baad kisi dosray ilaqay ki taraf safar kar jatay. woh log bad’wiyanA zindagi guzartay. koi iqtisadi, mu’aashi ya ijtimaa’i nizaam nahi tha. jungle ke Maroof qanoon ke mutabiq “jis ki laathi is ki bhens” par amal karte thay. is liye un ke mah -o- saal , jung -o- Jaddal aur lout maar mein guzartey thay. aur is par fakhar bhi karte thay. isi liye un arbo ke haan waraasat ka inhisaar rajoli’yat aur qo’wat par mabni tha. aur sirf mard hi waaris hotay thay aur aurat zaat ki koi hesi’yat nahi thi, balkay un se janwaron jaisa sulooq kiya jata tha. koi aurat apne kisi rishta daar yani baap, khawand, aulaad ki waaris nahi ban sakti thi .

*Jahli’at ke daur mein arbo ke haan husool -e- waraasat ke murawaja teen asbaab *

 

1 : [ Al-nsab -wal- qaraabat]

2 : Al- tbanni

3 : Al-hal’af (2)

[Tafseer -ul- qurttabi 5/ 79, Ahkaam -ul- quraan li-ibn -il- arbi 1/328, Tafseer -ul- tibraani 4/275, Ahkaam -ul- quran -lil- jas’saas 23, Taareekh -ul- arab qbal -ul- islaam 5/274’275]

 

*Al-nasab ( khooni rishta )*

 

Arbo mein nasab yani khooni rishta ki bana par waraasat payi jati thi lekin qaraabat aur khooni rishta honay ke bawajood maa, beti, behan, chotey bachon aur bodhon mardon ko tarka se mahroom rakha jata tha. kyunkay un mein dushmnon ke khilaaf jung karne ki himmat nahi hoti aur nah hi apne qabeela ka kisi tareeqa se difaa kar satke hain. is liye tarka kay mustahiq sirf no-jawaan aur bahadur qisam ke log hotay thay. Is qanoon par islam ke ibtidayi ayyaam mein bhi amal kiya jata raha. yahan tak ke Syedna Saad bin al-rabbi رضی اللہ عنہ Ghazwah -e- Ohad mein shaheed ho gaye to un ki biwi apni do baityon ko le kar nabiﷺ ke paas aayi aur arz kiya ya rasool Allahﷺ yeh Saad bin al-rabbi razi Allah anho ki betiyan hain jo Ghazwah -e- Ohad mein shaheed ho gaye hain aur un ke chacha nay Saad ki saari jaedaad apne qabza mein le li hai aur un ke liye kuch bhi nahi chodha aur maal ke baghair un ki shadian kis terhan ho sakti hain?

Aapﷺ ne farmaaya :

Allah ta’ala is ke mut’aliq zaroor koi faisla farmaiye ga. chunancha is ke baad meeraas ki ayaat یوصیكم اللہ فی أوْلادكمْ. .. الخ nazil hoyin to aapﷺ ne un ke chacha se kaha Saad ki baityon ko do tahai (2/3 ) aur is ki biwi ko jaedad ka aathwan hissa (1/8 ) do aur jo baqi bachay ga woh tumhara hai. (1)

[Akhrajah -ul- bukhaari, wa muslim ann Jabir bin Abdullah]

 

Islam se qabal aurat ki koi hesiyat nahi thi aur islam hi ne aurat ko pasti aur zillat se nikaal kar izzat aur Sharf ataa kya .

*Al-mutaban’na*

Arbo mein yeh rivaaj tha ke kisi dosray ke betay ko apna beta bana liya jata tha. phir ussay isi ki taraf mansoob kiya jata tha aur mutabn’na beta is ka waaris bhi hota tha. jaisa ke nabi akramﷺ ne ba’siyat se qabal Zaid bin Haarisa razi Allah anho ko azad kar ke apna beta bana liya tha. phir ussay Zaid bin Mohammad ya tum se puraaka jata tha aur islam ke ibtidayi ayyaam tak yeh rivaaj qaim daaim raha. hat’ta ke surah al-ahzaab ki aayat number 5, 4 ke nuzool par ussay mansookh kar diya gaya .

*Al-halaf ( mo’aahida )*

Jaahli’at ke daur mein arab halaf ke zar’iya aik dosray ke waaris bantay thay woh halaf mein kehte thay :

 

دمی دمك وهدْمی هدْمك, ترثنی وارثك تطلب بی وأطْلب بك

 

moahida mukammal honay par kisi aik ki wafaat ke baad dosra is ki jaedad mein se chatta hissa (1/6 ) ka waaris bantaa tha. baad mein surah al-anfaal aayat.

 

(وأولوا الأرْحام بعْضهمْ أوْلی ببعْضٍ فی کتاب اللہ)

 

Nuzool par halaf ke zar’iye waraasat mansookh hogayi.

 

Yeh hain waraasat ke woh qawaaneen jo qabal az islam doosri qomon mein raa’ij thay. aik insaaf pasand aur aqalmand qaari par zaroor yeh wazeh ho gaya hoga ke insaaf kahan paaya jata hai. khud saakhta qawaaneen mein ya Allahﷻ ke nazil kardah qawaneen mein, jis ne aurat, kamzor aur na-tawaan mardon ko Adal -o- insaaf muhay’ya kiya hai aur har haq daar ko is ka haq diya hai .

 

REFERENCE:
Book: “Islam Ka Qanoon-e-Warasaat”
By Salah Uddin Haider Lakhwi.

 

sheikh Ubaid ur Rehman muhammadi | islami qanoon e miras | lecture_2 | Ramadan Mubarak 2023
Table of Contents