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04. Waraasat kay Arkaan, Shuroot, Asbaab aur Mawanay.

Waraasat kay Arkaan, Sharoot ,Asbaab aur mawaan’ay

 

Dosray uloom ki terhan ilm -ul- meeraas ke bhi arkaan, asbaab, Sharoot aur mwan’ay -ul- irs hain. jin ka bayaan darj zail hay…

 


Arkaan -ul- irs


Meeraas kay teen arkaan hain, un mein se agar aik rukan bhi kam ho to meeraas ka wujood nahi hoga.

 

1: Al-mo’ris

Is se muraad mai’yat hai jis ki jaedaad ko waarison ke darmiyaan taqseem kiya jata hai .

 

2: Al-waaris

Yeh mai’yat ka woh rishtay daar hai jo mai’yat kay tarka ka haqdaar hota hai.

 

3: Al-muroos

Is se muraad mai’yat ki jaedaad hai chahay woh naqdi ki soorat mein ho ya zara’yi zameen ya makaan waghera waghera .

 


Asbaab -ul- irs


Asbaab -ul- irs teen hain:

Al-nasab

Al-nikah

Al-wala

 

1: Al-nasab

Is se muraad khooni rishta aur qaraabat hai jo waaris aur Moris kay darmiyaan wilaadat ki wajah se hota hai. yeh rishta mai’yat ki aulaad ( beta, beti, pota, poti ) aur mai’yat ke aaba -o- ajdaad ( baap, dada, maa, dadi, nani aur mai’yat kay bhai, behan aur chchaon waghera ) per mushtamil hai .

 

2: Al-nikah

Is se muraad woh nikah hai jo Aqad -e- sahih key zari’ye waqa’y howa ho. chahay khalwat aur mujami’yat haasil nah hui ho. is mein khawand aur biwi mein se kisi aik ki wafaat ke baad woh aik dosray ki jaedaad key waaris bantay hain.

Baatil nikah, ( nikah -e- mutt’ah waghera ) ki soorat mein woh aik dosray key waaris nahi bantay .

*Mut’alqa aurat ki meeras ( meeras -ul- mut’alqa )*

▪️Agar khaawand ne apni biwi ko Talaaq -e- Raj’ei ( pehli ya doosri Talaq) di aur woh biwi ki iddat ke douran khawand faut ho gaya. sab fuqaha key nazdeek woh biwi waaris ho gayi. aur agar iddat khatam honay ke baad khaawand faut huwa to woh aurat waaris nahi banay gi .

▪️Agar khaawand ne apni biwi ko Talaq -e- bain, bainona kubra ( teesri Talaaq ) di aur khaawand sahih -o- salim aur tandrust tha phir woh faut ho gaya. aisi soorat mein biwi waaris nahi hogi chahay is ki iddat khatam ho gayi ho ya nah .

▪️Agar khaawand maraz -ul- maut mein mubtala hai. isi haalat mein is ne apni biwi ko Talaaq -e- baine ( bainona kubra ) day di aur khaawand ki niyat ussay waraasat se mahroom karta hai. is masla mein fuqaha ke darmiyan ikhtilaaf paaya jata hai. (1)

 

[Fatah -ul- qadir : 15/3 , Al-mabsoot 155/ 6 , Al- rahbiyyah 32]

 

Imam Shaf’i (رحمہ اللہ) kehte hain woh aurat mutlqan waaris nahi hogi, kyunkay Talaaq -e- bine waqay hui hai .

Imam abbu Hanifa (رحمہ اللہ) kehte hain khaawand agar aurat ki iddat key douran faut huwa hai to woh waaris hogi. agar iddat khatam honay key baad khaawand faut howa hai to woh aurat waaris nahi hogi, aur agar aurat ke talab karne par is ne Talaaq di ya Talaaq -e- khula’a waqay hui ho to woh mutlaqan waaris nahi hogi .

Imam Ahmed (رحمہ اللہ) kehte hain woh aurat har haalat mein waaris hogi lekin agar is ne iddat khatam honay ke baad kisi dosray aadmi se shadi kar li to woh waaris nahi hogi.

Imam Maalik (رحمہ اللہ) kehte hain woh har haalat mein waaris hogi, khuwa is ne iddat khatam honay ke baad shadi ki hai ya nahi aur un ki Daleel yeh hai.

Syedna Abdur Rehman bin auf (رضی اللہ عنہ ) ne apni biwi tmaadar ko bemari ki haalat mein Talaaq -e- bine di thi phir woh isi bemari ki haalat mein wafaat pa gaye to Ameer -ul-momineen Syedna Usmaan bin Affan (رضی اللہ عنه ) ne tmaadar ko is key tarka mein se waraasat di thi. aur yahi raye raaij hai .

 

3. Al- Wala 

Wala se muraad woh qaraabat hai jis ko islam ne aaqa aur is ke azad kardah ghulaam ke darmiyaan banaya hai. azad kardah ghulaam ki wafaat ke baad woh aaqa is ghulaam ki jaedaad ka waaris hoga bashart ye keh ghulaam ka koi sharai waaris mojood nah ho. jaisa ke hadees Bareera mein aaya hai

 

إنما الْولاء لمن أعْتق

(Rawah -o- muslim wa Bukhari)

 

 

Aur Aap ﷺ ne farmaya :

 

الْولا لحْمة كلحمة النسب (1)

 

[Rawah o Ahmed wa ibn -e- habbaan wal hakim]


Sharoot -ul- irss ( waraasat ki Sharoot )


waraasat panay ki teen shartain hain :

 

Pehli shart

 

Moris ki mout ka haqeeqi tor par waqa’y hona ya hukmi tor par , haqeeqi mout to zahir hai log khud apne hathon se maiyat ko dafnaate hain. aur hukmi mout qaazi key mout ka hukum saadir karne se hoti hai. is ki misaal mafqood ( gum shuda ) shakhs hai jab qaazi is ki mout ka faisla saadir kar day to phir is shakhs ko murda tasawwur kiya jaye ga aur is ki jaedaad ko is key waarison mein taqseem kiya jaye ga.

 

Doosri shart

 

Waaris ki zindagi ka saboot keh Moris ki mout key waqt woh zindah tha chahay chand minute ke liye hi zindah raha. yeh zindagi haqeeqi tor par ho ya hukmi tor par jis ki misaal hamal hai ussay is ki paidaiesh tak zindah hi tasawwur kiya jaye ga. agar waaris key zindah honay ka pata nah chal sakay to woh waaris nahi bantaa .

 

Teesri shart

 

Waaris ban’nay ke liye is sabab ki pehchan zaroori hai. jis ki bina par woh waaris ban raha hy. Ya’ni nasab, nikah ya wala my sy kisi aik ka paya jana zroori hy

 


Mawan’a -ul- irss


kalma mwan’a, Man’ey ki jama hai, yeh aisa Wasaf hai agar kisi shakhs mein paaya jaye to woh waraasat se mahroom ho jaye ga. khuwa is mein waaris ban’nay key asbaab mojood bhi hon

Man’ey teen hain:۔

Al-qatal

Ikhtilaaf -ul- Deen

Al-riqq ( yani ghulaami )

 

Al- qatal

is mein sab fuqaha ka ittifaaq hai ke agar koi shakhs apne Moris ko amadan qatal kar day to woh apne maqtool ki Jaedaad ka waaris nahi hoga jaisa hadees shareef mein hai.

 

عنْ عمر بن الخطاب رضی اللہ عنہ : سمعْت النبی ﷺ یقول : لیْس للْقاتل من المیرات شیْی (1)

 

[Rawahun Nisai]

 

aur Doosri hadees mein hai :

 

عن عمر بن شعیب عن ابیہ عن جدہ عن النبی ﷺ : قال لا

 

یرث الْقاتل شیْئا

 

Is terhan fuqaha ka maqola bhi hai.

 

 

منْ تعجل شیْئا قبْل الاوان عوقب بالْحرْمان

 

Imam Maalik (رحمہ اللہ) kehte hain ke agar kisi ne ghalti ( al-qatal -bil- khata ) se apne Moris ko qatal kar diya to woh is ki jaedaad ka waaris to hoga. lekin is ne jo diyat ada ki hai woh is ka waaris nahi banay ga. lekin baqi aymah key nazdeek woh mutlaqan waaris nahi hoga .

 

Ikhtilaaf -ul- Deen

 

Is se muraad kufar aur islam hai yani muslim aur ghair muslim aik dosray key waaris nah hunge. jaisa ke hadees mein hai .

 

عَنْ أَسَامَةَ بن زيد رضی الله عنه :قَالَ: أَنَّ النبي صلى الله علیه وسلم قَالَ: لَا يَرِثُ الْمُسْلِمُ الْكَافِرُ وَلَا الْكَافِرَ الْمُسْلِمَ»

 

(Mutafaq alaih)

 

Agar kisi musalmaan ne ahal -e- kitaab ki aurat se shadi ki phir khaawand ya biwi faut ho gaye to woh aik dosray ke waaris nahi hunge. agar koi kafir apne muslim rishta daar ki mout ke baad aur tarka ki taqseem se pehlay imaan le aaya to Imaam Maalik (رحمہ اللہ), Imaam Shafi (رحمہ اللہ) aur Imaam abo hanifah (رحمہ اللہ) key nazdeek woh waaris nahi banay ga. lekin Imaam Ahmed (رحمہ اللہ) kehte hain islam ki targheeb dainay ke liye ussay waraasat mein shareek bana liya jaye ga .

Islaam mein aazaad aur ghulaam ke darmiyaan twarus nahi hai. kyunkay ghulaam khud aur jo kuch woh kamaata hai woh is key aaqa ka hota hai. is liye agar ghulaam apne kisi Aziz ka waaris bantaa hai to woh jaedaad is key aaqa ko muntaqil ho jaye gi. halaanky aaqa ka maiyat se koi ta’lluq nahi hai Is liye sab fuqaha key nazdeek yeh baatil hai. aur hadees shareef mein hai.

 

لا یمْلک العبد إلا الطلاق

 

Note

koi waaris jab kisi Man’ey ki wajah se waraasat sey mahroom ho jaata hai to is ki mojoodgi dosray waarison ko nah to waraasat se mahroom kar sakti hai aur nah hi inhen un ke badhey hissay ki bajaye chotey hissay ki taraf muntaqil kar sakti hai. maslan betay ne apni maa ko qatal kar diya. maqtolah ne apna khaawand, Aini bhai aur qaatil beta zindah chorra. khaawand ko is ka badha hissa (1/2 ) miley ga. aur baqi aadhi jaedaad Aini bhai bator -e- asbah ley ga. aur qaatil beta mahroom hai. is terhan murtad aur ghulaam ki mojoodgi bhi dosray waarison par assar andaaz nahi hoti. (1)

 

[ Al- Rajiyyatu -lil- mardeeni pg# 36 , Al- mughani -ibn- qudama 6 / 266′ 267]

 


Wurasa aur un ki ta’daad


Al-waarisona minn -al- rijaal ( mard wurasa ) Mard jo waaris bantay hain un ki tadaad pandrah (15) hai :


Beta

Pota

Baap

Dada

Aini bhai ( jin ke maa, baap aik hon )

Al’lati bhai ( jin ka baap aik hi ho aur maaen alag alag hon )

Akhiyafi bhai ( jin ki maa aik ho aur baap alag alag hon )

Aini bhai ka beta ( maiyat ka bhatija )

Al’lati bhai ka beta

chacha ( haqeeqi chacha )

Al’lati chacha ( soutela chacha )

Haqeeqi chacha ka beta

Al’lati chacha ka beta

khawand

Aaqa jis ne apne ghulaam ko aazaad kiya ho .

 

Note 

Agar koi aurat faut hogi aur is ne mazkoorah pandrah mard waaris zindah chodhey to un mein se sirf teen mard waaris hunge ( beta, baap aur khaawand ) aur baqi mandah baara ( ۱۲ ) mahroom hongy.


Al-waarisaatu minn -al- nisaa ( waaris aurtain ) Aurtain jo waaris banti hain un ki tadaad das hai.


Beti

Poti

Maa

Nani

Dadi

Aini behan

Al’lati behan

Akhiyafi behan

Biwi

Woh aurat jis ne apne ghulaam ko aazaad kiya ho ( Al- mu’taqitah )

 

Note :

 

Agar koi aadmi faut ho gaya aur us ne mazkoorah das aurton ko zindah chodha to un mein se sirf paanch aurtain waaris baney gi. beti, poti, maa, Aini behan aur biwi. aur baqi sab waraasat se mahroom hongi .

 

Note :

 

Agar koi mard ya aurat faut ho jaye aur woh mazkoorah ( 24 ) waaris zindah chodhey to un mein se sirf paanch ashkhaas waaris hunge. aur woh khaawand ya biwi, beta, beti, maa, baap hain aur baqi mandah sab waraasat se mahroom honge .

 

REFERENCE:
Book: “Islam Ka Qanoon-e-Warasaat”
By Salah Uddin Haider Lakhwi.

 

sheikh Ubaid ur Rehman muhammadi | islami qanoon e miras | lecture_4 | Ramadan Mubarak 2023
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