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09. Radd ki bahes.

 *Radd ki behas*

*Lughwi mai’enay*

 

Arabi lughat mein radd kayi ma’ienon mein aata hai. yeh rujoo karne aur lotney key ma’ienay mein bhi aata hai jaisa keh Quran kareem mein aaya hai…

( فاردنا على آثارهما قصصا )

 

aur lautnay key ma’ienay mein bhi aata hai jaisa keh hadees shareef mein hai :

 

( اللهم رد كیْدهمْ عنی أنْ أصْرفْ كیْدهمْ عنى )

 

kisi shayir ka qoul hai:

 

یا أم عمرٍو جزاك اللہ مغْفرة ردى علی فوادی
مثْل ما كانا أی أعیدى علی فوادی كماۤ کان فی السابق

 

*Istilahi ma’ienay*

 

Meeras key baaz masaail mein ashaab -ul- furooz ko asal masla se un key hissay dainay key baad kuch hissay baqi bach jaatay hain. aur masla mein koi asbah bhi nahi hota keh woh baqi le laita. un baqi maandah hisson ko dobaara ashaab -ul- furooz key darmiyaan un key Sihaam ki nisbat se lautnay ko radd kehte hain. radd amal key Bar’aks hai yani zid hai. Auwl walay masaail mein ashaab -ul- furooz key hisson ka majmo’ah asal masla se badh jaata hai aur radd waly masaail mein un key hisson ka majmo’ah asal masla se kam reh jata hai.


*Ikhtilaaf -ul- fuqaha fir radd*

Radd key baaray mein sahaba -e- karaam mein ikhtilaaf paaya jata tha. ke radd key kon kon mustahiq hain?

syedna Umar razi Allah anho, syedna usmaan razi Allah anho, Abdul Allah bin mas’ood razi Allah anho aur Abdullah bin abbas razi Allah anho ne radd ko ikhtiyaar farmaaya tha keh baqi jaedaad ko ashaab -ul- furooz par dobaara un key Sihaam ki nisbat se taqseem kiya jaaye ga. aur Imam abu hanifah rehmat Allah alaihi ka bhi yahi maslak hai. aur doosri taraf syedna abubaker razi Allah anho aur Zaid bin saabit razi Allah anho se manqool hai keh ashaab -ul- furooz par radd nahi hoga. balkay baqi jaedaad bait -ul- maal mein jam’a hogi. Imam Ibn Hazam rehmat Allah alaihi, Imam maalik rehmat allah alyhe aur Imam shaf’i rehmat Allah alaihi ka yahi maslak hai. lekin sun 200 hijri key aakhir mein bait -ul- maal key ghalat istemaal ki wajah se maalkiyah aur shafi’ah ne bhi baqi jaedaad ko ashaab -ul- furooz par radd karne ko qubool kar liya. chunancha sab fuqaha ka radd par ijm’a ho gaya .


*Sharot -ur- radd*

Radd key masaail ki teen shartain hain. koi bhi shart kam honay ki soorat mein woh masla radd ka nahi hoga. masla key wurasa sab key sab ashaab -ul- furooz hon .

masla key wurasa mein koi asbah modood nah ho. ashaab -ul- furooz ko un ka muqarrar shuda hissa ada karney key baad kuch hissay baqi bach jayen .


*wurasa jo radd key mustahiq hain*

 

Beti

Poti

‘Aini behan

‘Allati behan

Akhiyaafi behan

Akhiyaafi bhaai

Daadi

Naani

Maa

 

*Note#1*

Baap aur daada dono sahib farzz hain aur baaz haalton mein bator -e- asbah bhi waaris hotay hain. agar woh kisi masla mein waaris hon to jo hissa baqi bachay ga woh le len ge lehaza woh masla radd ka masla nahi hoga .

 

*Note#2*

khaawand aur biwi agar radd waly masla mein waaris hon to woh radd key mustahiq nahi hain. kyunkay un ki maiyat se jo qaraabat hai woh nasab ki qaraabat nahi hai balkay nikah ki qaraabat hai jo kisi aik ki mout se munqit’ay hogayi hai. chunancha baqi tarka deegar waarison par radd kiya jaaye ga .


*Radd key masaail ki aqsaam aur un ka hal*

Radd key masaail ki chaar qismain hain. aur un key hal key bhi chaar hi qaiday hain .

 

*Qaida#1*

 

Agar masla key wurasa sirf woh hon jo radd key mustahiq hain aur woh aik hi sinnaf key hon. aur un ke hamrah khawand ya biwi mein se koi mojood nah ho. to un ka asal masla un key ruoos ki tadaad ho gayi aur woh farzan aur riddan waaris hunge. maslan maiyat ne apni chaar betiyaan ya chay ‘Aini behnain zindah choden. to un ka asal masla (4) ya phir ( 6 ) hoga. jo un key ruoos ki tadaad hai .

 

*Qaida#2*

 

Agar masla key wurasa sirf woh hon jo radd key mustahiq hain aur woh do ya do se ziyada Asnaaf key hon aur un key hamrah khaawand ya biwi mein se koi bhi nah ho. to un ka asal masla un key hisson ka majmo’ah hoga. jo woh asal masla se letay hain .

 

*Misaal*

1 shakhs faut ho gaya aur apni beti, poti aur maa ko zindah choda .

 

*Hal*

Asal masla ( 6 ) hai. beti ko 1/2 (3) miley. poti 1/6 ( 1 ) mila. aur maa ko 1/6 ( 1 ) mila. un key hisson ka majmo’ah

( 1 + 1 + 3 = 5 ) (5) hai jo asal masla ( 6 ) se kam hai is liye yeh masla radd ka hai ab un key hisson ka majmo’ah (5) is masla ka naya asal hoga .

 

5

3 baitiyaan 1/2

1 Poti 1/6

1 Maa 1/6


*Qaida#3 (Alif)*

Agar kisi masla key wurasa ( jo radd key mustahiq hain ) aik hi sinnaf se hon aur un key hamrah khaawand ya biwi hon. to is masla ka hal is terhan hai key pehlay khaawand ya biwi key farz ki kasar ko asal masla banayen is mein se khaawand ya biwi ko is ka hissa den aur jo hissa baqi bach jaaye usay baqi wuraasa key darmiyaan taqseem karna hai agar woh baqi wurasa key ruoos par baghair kasar key taqseem ho jaye to khaawand ya biwi wala asal hi radd key masla ki jami’a hoga .

 

*Misaal*

Aik aurat faut hogayi aur apna khaawand aur 3 betiyan zindah chodi hain .

 

*Hal*

asal masla (4) hai jo khaawand key farz ki kasar hai. khaawand ko 1/4 ( 1 ) mila. aur baqi (3) teen baitiyon key hain jo un key ruoos par pooray pooray taqseem ho rahay hain chunancha is masla ki jami’a (4 ) ho gayi .

 

4

1 Khaawand 1/4

3 teen betiyaan Baqi

*( Bay )*

 

Agar baqi maandah hissa baqi wurasa key ruoos par poora poora taqseem nah ho to dekhna hoga wurasa key ruoos aur un key liye baqi hissa key darmiyaan konsi nisbat paayi jati hai. agar Tabaayun ki nisbat ho to adad -e- ruoos ko khaawand ya biwi walay asal se zarb den ge aur haasil zarb is masla ki jami’a ho ga. dobaara Adad -e- ruoos ko khaawand ya biwi key hissa aur baqi maandah hisson se bhi zarb den ge. aur haasil zarb ko jami’a ke tehat likhain ge .


*Misaal*

Aik aurat faut ho gayi aur apna khaawand aur 4 baitiyon ko zindah choda .

 

*Hal*

Asal masla (4) hai khaawand ko 1/4 ( 1 ) mila aur baqi (3) chaar baitiyon key hain jo un key ruoos par pooray pooray taqseem nahi ho rahay. 4 aur 3 key darmiyaan Tabaayun ki nisbat hai ab baitiyon key ruoos (4) ko asal masla (4) se zarb den ge

 

16 = 4×4

4 = 4×1 khaawand 1/4

12=4×3 chaar betiyan baqi

( 4×4 = 16 ) haasil zarb ( 16 ) is masla ki jami’a hai. dobaara (4) ko khaawand key hissa ( 1 ) se zarb den ge. aur baitiyon key hissa (3) se bhi zarb den ge is terhan khaawand ko (4) aur 4 baitiyon ko ( 12 ) milein ge har aik ko ( 3 ) .


*( Jeem )*

 

Agar baqi maandah hissay aur baqi wurasa key ruoos key darmiyaan tawaafuq ki nisbat ho to wurasa key ruoos key tawaafuq ko zojain walay asal se zarb den ge aur haasil zarb masla ki jami’a hogi phir is se zojain key hissay aur baqi wurasa key hissa se bhi zarb den ge .

 

*Misaal*

 

Aik aadmi faut ho gaya aur apni biwi aur 6 ‘Aini behnon ko zindah choda .

 

*Hal*

Asal masla (4) hai. biwi ko 1/4 ( 1 ) mila aur baqi (3) chay behnon key hain. jo un key ruoos par pooray taqseem nahi ho ray hai aur un key darmiyaan tawaafuq bis sulus ki nisbat hai lehaza ( 6) ko (3) se taqseem kiya. ( 6÷3 = 2 ) haasil taqseem ( 2 ) ko biwi key asal masla ( 4 ) se zarb diya. ( 4×2 = 8 ) haasil zarb ( 8 ) is masla ki jami’a hai. dobaara (2) ko biwi key hissay aur chay behnon key hisson se bhi zarb diya. chunancha biwi ko (2) aur chay behnon ko ( 6 ) miley. har aik ko ( 1 ) mila .

 

8 = 4×2

2 =1×2 biwi 1/4

6 = 3×2 chay behnain baqi


*Qaida#4*

 

Agar kisi masla key wurasa jo radd key mustahiq hain do ya do se ziyaada Asnaaf se hon aur un key hamrah zojain mein se bhi koi aik mojood ho to is masla ko hal karne key liye darj zail amal karna hoga .

 

*( ا)*

 

Sab se pehlay is masla ko yeh maloom karne key liye hal karen keh yeh masla radd ka hai ya nahi .

 

*( ب )*

 

Agar yeh radd ka masla ho phir zojain key farz ki kasar ko asal masla banayen. is se khaawand ya biwi ko is ka hissa den aur baqi maandah hissay dosray waarison key hain jaisa ke qaida number 3 mein wazaahat ki gayi hai .

 

*(ج)*

 

Ab radd key mustahiq wurasa ka asal maloom karen. un key hisson ka majmo’ah un ka asal hoga. jaisa keh qaida number 2 mein bayaan kiya gaya hai .

 

*( د )*

 

Ab yeh maloom karen keh zojain key asal mein se baqi maandah hissa aur radd key mustahiq waarison key asal key darmiyaan tammasul Tabaayun ya tawaafuq mein se konsi nisbat hai. agar un key darmiyaan tamaasul ki nisbat hai to zojain key masla ka asal hi radd key masla ki jami’a hogi .


*Misaal*

Aik aadmi faut ho gaya aur apni biwi, maa, akhiyaafi behan ko zindah choda .

 

*Hal*

Biwi key farz ki kasar (4) asal masla hai. biwi ko (1/4) (1) mila aur baaqi maa aur akhiyaafi behan key liye hain maa aur akhiyaafi behan ka asal masla ( 6 ) maa ko (1/3 ) (2) miley behan ko ( 1/6 ) ( 1 ) mila. un ke hisson ka majmo’ah ( 2 + 1 = 3 ) (3) hi un key masla ka asal hai. ab asal (3 ) aur biwi walay asal mein se baqi hissay (3) key darmiyaan tamaasul ki nisbat hai. lehaza biwi wala asal masla ( 4 ) hi is masla ki jami’a hai. jis mein se biwi ko ( 1 ) mila. maa ko (2) aur akhiyaafi behan ko ( 1 ) mila .

 

4 3/6 4

1 1 Biwi 1/4

= = = 3 baqi

2 2 Maa 1/3

1 1 Akhiyaafi behan 1/6


*Tabaayun ki nisbat ki misaal aur is ka hal*


Agar zojain key asal masla mein se baqi hissa aur radd key mustahiq wurasa key asal key darmiyaan tabaayun ki nisbat ho to radd key mustahiq waarison key asal ko zojain key asal masla se zarb den ge. aur haasil zarb masla ki jami’a hogi phir usay zojain key hissa se bhi zarb den ge. aur jawab ko jami’a key tehat likhain ge. ab zojain key asal masla mein se baqi maandah hissa ko radd key mustahiq waarison key hisson se zarb den ge. aur un key jawab ko jami’a key tehat likhain ge .

 

*Misaal*

Aik aadmi faut ho gaya aur apni biwi beti aur maa ko zindah choda .

 

*Hal*

Biwi key farz (1/8) ki kasar (8) asal masla hai biwi ko (1) mila aur (7) beti aur maa key liye hain. beti aur maa ka asal masla ( 6 ) beti ko ( 1/2) (3) miley aur maa ko ( 1/6 ) ( 1 ) mila. un ka majmo’ah (3 + 1 = 4 ) ( 4 ) un ka asal masla hai. ab baqi hissay ( 7 ) aur un key asal ( 4 ) key darmiyaan tabaayun ki nisbat hai lehaza ( 4 ) ko ( 8 ) se zarb diya. ( 4×8 = 32 ) haasil zarb ( 32 ) masla ki jami’a hai phir biwi key hissa ( 1 ) se bhi zarb diya aur jawaab ( 4 ) jami’a key tehat likha. phir baqi hissay ( 7 ) ko beti aur maa key hisson se zarb diya aur un key jawaab ko jami’a key tehat likha. is terhan biwi ko ( 4 ) miley, beti ko ( ‏21 ) miley aur maa ko ( 7 ) miley .

 

4×8 = 4/6 32

1×4 = 4 biwi 1/8

7 baqi

3×7 = 21 beti 1/2

1×7 = 7 maa 1/6


*Tawaafuq ki nisbat ki misaal aur is ka hal*

Agar zojain key asal masla mein se baqi maandah hisson aur radd key mustahiq waarison key asal key darmiyaan tawaafuq ki nisbat ho to radd key mustahiq waarison key asal key vfaq se zojain key asal se zarb den ge. aur haasil zarb masla ki jami’a hogi. phir usay zojain key hissa se bhi zarb den ge ab zojain key asal mein se baqi maandah hisson key vfaq se radd key mustahiq waarison key hisson se zarb den ge. un key jawaab jami’a key tehat tehreer karen ge .

 

*Misaal*

Aik aadmi faut ho gaya aur apni biwi. dadi, nani aur 2 akhyaafi bhaai zindah chodey .

 

*Hal*

Biwi key farz (1/4) ki kasar (4) asal masla hai biwi ko (1) mila, aur baqi (3) daadi, naani aur 2 akhiyaafi bhaaiyon key liye hain. un ka asal masla ( 6 ) hai daadi aur naani ko ( 1 /6 ) ( 1 ) mila. do bhaaiyon ko ( 1/3 ) ( 2 ) miley. un ka majmo’ah ( 1 + 2 = 3 ) ( 3 ) un ka asal masla hai. dadi aur nani ka hissa ( 1 ) un par poora poora taqseem nahi hota is ki asal ki tashee karne key liye usay un key ruoos 2 se zarb diya ( 2×3 = 6 ) haasil zarb ( 6 ) un key asal ki tasheeh hai. un key asal ( 6 ) aur baqi hissay ( 3 ) key darmiyaan tawaafuq bis sulus hai lehaza ( 6 ) ko ( 3 ) se taqseem kiya ( 6÷3 = 2 ) is ke jawaab (2) ko biwi key asal (4) se zarb diya

 

8=2×4 6=3×2

1 = 1 Biwi 1/4

2=1×2 Daadi / Naani 1/6

4 =2×2 do akhiyaafi bhaai 1/ 3

 

( 4×2 = 8 ) haasil zarb ( 8 ) is masla ki jami’a hai. phir biwi key hissa ( 1 ) ko bhi ( 2 ) se zarb diya ( 1×2 = 2 ) jawaab ( 2 ) biwi ka hissa hai. ab baqi ( 3 ) ko bhi tawaafuq ( 3 ) se taqseem kya ( 3÷ 3 = 1 ) jawaab ( 1 ) naani, daadi aur bhaaiyon key hisson se zarb diya aur un key jawaab jami’a key tehat likha. is terhan biwi ko ( 2 ) miley. daadi aur naani ko ( 2 ) miley har aik ko ( 1 ) aur do bhaaiyon ko ( 4 ) miley har aik ko ( 2 ) .

Radd key masaail ko hal karne ka aik aur aasaan tareeqa he jisay baaz ulama -e- meeraas ne ikhtiyaar kiya he. is mein alnasb -ul- arb’ah tamaasul, tadaakhul, Tabaayun aur tawaafuq key ist’imaal karne ki zaroorat nahi he. is mein zojain key masla ko hal krein phir ‘alehda un waarison ka masla hal karen jo radd key mustahiq hun.


*Misaal*

Aik aadmi ne apni biwi, 2 baitiyon aur maa ko zindah choda .

 

*Hal*

5/6

4 do baitiyaan 2/3

1 Maa 1/6

 

8

1 Biwi 1/8

7 Baaqi

 

biwi ko ( 1/8 ) miley aur baqi ( 7/8 ) baitiyon aur maa key hain. 2 baitiyon aur maa ka asal masla ( 5 ) hai. baitiyon ko ( 4/5 ) miley aur maa ko ( 1/5 ) miley. do baitiyon ka hissa : 28/40 = 4/5 × 7/8


Maa ka hissa :

 

7 / 40 =7/8 × 1/5

Sab waarison ka majmo’ah : biwi do betiyan maa

1/8 + 28/40 + 7/40

5 + 28 + 7/40 = 40/40

 

Radd key masla ki jami’a ( 40 ) hai. jis mein se biwi ko ( 5 ) miley. do baitiyon ( 28 ) miley, aur maa ko ( 7 ) miley .


*Misaal*

Aik aurat apna khaawand, beti aur poti ko zindah chode kar faut hogayi .

 

*Hal*

4/6

3 Beti 1/2

1 Poti 1/6

 

4

1 khawand 1/4

3 baqi

 

khawand ko (1/4) miley aur baqi (3/4 ) beti aur poti key hain. beti aur poti ka asal masla (4) hai. beti ko (3/4) miley aur poti ko (1/4) miley .


Beti ka hissa :

 

3/4 × 3/4 = 9/16


Poti ka hissa :

 

3/4 × 1/4 = 3/16

 

sab waarison ka majmo’ah : khaawand beti poti

 

1/4 + 9/16 + 3/16

4 + 9 + 3/16 = 16/16

 

Is masla ki jami’a ( 16 ) hai. khaawand ka hissa ( 4 ). beti ka hissa ( 9 ) aur poti ka hissa ( 3 ) hai .

 

 

REFERENCE:
Book: “Islam Ka Qanoon-e-Warasaat”
By Salah Uddin Haider Lakhwi.

 

 

sheikh Ubaid ur Rehman muhammadi | islami qanoon e miras | lecture_8 | Ramadan Mubarak 2023
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