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13. Munaaskhah ka bayan.

*Al-munaaskhaat (Munaaskhah ka bayaan)*

 

*Lughwi aur istilahi ma’ienay*

 

*Lughwi*

Munaaskha baab mufa’ala ka masdar hai jo nasakh se mushtaq hai. is key lughwi ma’ienay azaala tagayur aur naqal key hain. isi se hai

نسحْت الْكتاب : أیْ نقلْته إلى نسْخةٍ أخرى,

“mein ne is se dosra nuskha naqal kiya”

 

*Istilahi ma’ienay*

Maiyat key tarka ki taqseem se qabal pehli maiyat key waarison mein se koi aik ya ziyaada waaris faut ho jayen. to doosri maiyat key hissa ko is key waarison mein taqseem karne ko munaaskha kehte hain .

 

*Note*

Munaaskha key masaail ko hal karte waqt yeh jaanna zaroori hai keh pehli maiyat muzakkar hai ya mo’annas warna hal karne mein ghalti ka imkaan hai. maslan 1 shakhs ne apne maa, baap aur do baitiyon ko zindah choda. phir aik beti mazkoorah waarison ko chode kar faut ho gayi agar pehli maiyat muzakkar hai to dosray masla key waaris ‘Aini behan, daada aur daadi hunge. aur agar pehli maiyat mo’annas hai to is key waaris, ‘Aini behan, naana aur naani hunge. naana zo al-arhaam mein se hai. aur woh ashaab -ul- furooz ki mojoodgi mein waaris nahi hota .

*Ahwaal -ul- munaaskha (Munaaskha masaail ki haaltain)*

 

Munaaskha key masaail ki teen haaltain hain jo darj zail hain…

 


*Pehli haalat*


Doosri maiyat key wurasa pehli maiyat walay waaris hi hon aur dono masloo mein un key Sihaam bhi tabdeel nah hon. is sorat mein pehli aur doosri maiyat ka tarka zindah waarison key darmiyaan taqseem kiya jaaye ga .

 

*Misaal#1*

1 shakhs chaar betay aur aik beti chode kar faut ho gaya. phir tarka ki taqseem se qabal bada beta aur beti faut ho gaye. ab tarka baqi teen beton key darmiyaan taqseem ho ga. aur faut shuda betay aur beti ko shumaar nahi kiya jaaye ga .

 

*Misaal#2*

Aik aadmi apni biwi, beta aur beti ko chode kar faut ho gaya. phir tarka ki taqseem se qabal biwi mazkoorah dono bachon ko chode kar faut ho gayi. ab saari jaedaad betay aur beti key darmiyaan

( لذکر مثل حظ الأنثین )

ke tehat taqseem ho gayi .

 


*Doosri haalat*


Doosri maiyat key waaris hi pehli maiyat walay waaris hon. lekin un key Sihaam dosray masla mein tabdeel ho gaye hon. maslan aik aadmi faut ho gaya. is ne apni pehli biwi key batan se aik beta aur doosri biwi key batan se teen betiyan zindah choden. phir tarka ki taqseem se qabal aik beti faut ho gayi. pehlay masla mein sab bator -e- asbah waaris hain, lekin dosray masla mein dono betiyaan maiyat ki ‘Aini behnain ban kar waaris hongi jin ka Saham (2/3) hoga aur beta maiyat ka ‘allati bhaai ban kar bator asba waaris hoga. yani pehlay masla mein sab waaris asbah thay lekin dosray masla mein baaz sahib farz ban kar waaris banay aur deegar bator -e- asbah waaris huye.

 


*Teesri haalat*


Doosri maiyat key wurasa baaz auqaat pehli maiyat walay waaris hi hotay hain lekin un key hamrah mazeed deegar waaris bhi shaamil ho jatay hain. jo pehli maiyat key waaris nahi thay. maslan 1 shakhs faut ho gaya aur apni biwi, beti aur ‘Aini bhai ko zindah chorra, phir tarka ki taqseem se pehlay beti faut hogayi, is ne khawand, beta aur mazkoorah waris zindah chhorey, is misaal mein doosri maiyat ( beti ) key wurasa masla mein shaamil ho gaye, jo pehli maiyat key waaris nahi thay .

*Munaaskha ki doosri aur teesri haalat ko hal karne ka tareeqa*

Un haalton ko hal karne key liye mandarja zail amal karna hoga .

 

(1) Sab se pehlay pehli maiyat key masla ko hal kar key is ka asal masla maloom karen. aur asal masla se har waaris ko Bashmole doosri maiyat un ka hissa den. agar tasheeh ki zaroorat ho to asal masla ki tasheeh karen, taa ke har waaris ko is ka hissa kasar key baghair mil jaye.

(2) Ab doosri maiyat key masla ko hal karen aur har waaris ko kasar key baghair is ka hissa den.

(3) Doosri maiyat ko jo hissa pehli maiyat key asal masla se mila hai usay aur doosri maiyat key asal masla ko ghor se dekhen. un dono adadon key darmiyaan, tamaasul, Tabaayun , tawaafuq ya tadaakhul mein se kon ki nisbat paayi jati hai .

 


*Tamaasul ki misaal*


Agar dono key darmiyaan tamaasul ki nisbat ho to pehli maiyat ka asal masla hi munaaskha ki jami’a hoga. yani pehli aur doosri maiyat key sab waaris is jami’a se apna apna hissa len ge .

 

*Misaal*

Aik aurat apna khaawand, maa aur chacha ko zindah chode kar faut hogayi. phir tarka ki taqseem se pehlay do khaawand faut ho gaya aur apne teen betay jo doosri biwi key batan se thay zindah chodey .

*Hal*

Pehli maiyat ka asal (6) hai khaawand ko (1/2) (3) miley maa ko (1/3), (2) miley, baqi (1) chacha ko mila. doosri maiyat ( khaawand ) key masla ka asal (3) hai har betay ko (1) mila. ab khaawand ko pehli maiyat se jo (3) miley hain aur is key masla ka asal bhi (3) hai. dono adadon key darmiyaan tamaasul ki nisbat hai chunancha masla ki jami’a (6) hogayi. ab pehli maiyat aur doosri maiyat key sab waris (6) se apna apna hissa len ge. chunancha maa ko (2) chacha ko (1) aur teen beton ko (3) har aik ko (1) mila


*Tabaayun ki misaal*

Agar doosri maiyat ka hissa jo usay pehli maiyat se mila hai, is key aur doosri maiyat key asal key darmiyaan tabaayun ki nisbat ho to doosri maiyat key asal ko pehli maiyat key asal key sath zarb den. aur haasil zarb munaaskha ki jami’a hogi. ab dobaarah doosri maiyat key asal ko pehli maiyat key sab waarison key hissa key sath zarb den aur jawab un key naamon key samnay jami’a key tehat likhain. is terhan doosri maiyat key hissa ko jo usay pehli maiyat se asal se mila hai usay doosri maiyat key sab waarison key hissa key sath zarb den. aur jawaab ko un key naamon key saamnay jami’a key tehat likhain aur jis waaris ko dono maslon se do hissay milein hain inhen jama karen woh is waaris ka hissa hoga .

 

*Misaal*

Aik aadmi apni maa, ‘allati behan aur chacha ko zindah chode kar faut ho gaya. tarka ki taqseem se qabal ‘allati behan apne khaawand aur mazkoorah chacha ko chode kar faut hogayi .

*Hal*

Pehli maiyat ka asal masla ( 6 ) hai. maa ko (1/3) (2 ) miley, ‘allati behan ko (1/2) (3) miley aur baqi (1) chacha ko mila doosri maiyat ( ‘allati behan ) ka asal masla ( 2 ) hai. khaawand ko (1/2), (1) mila aur baqi (1) chacha ko mila. doosri maiyat ka asal (2) hai aur usay pehli maiyat se (3) miley hain. (2) aur (3) key darmiyaan Tabayun ki nisbat hai. ab ‘allati behan key masla key asal (2) ko pehli maiyat key asal (6) se zarb den ( 2×6=12 ) haasil zarb (12) munaaskha ki jami’a hogi, ab dobarah (2) se pehli maiyat key sab waarison key hissa key sath zarb den ge, isi terhan doosri maiyat key hissa (3) ko jo usay pehli maiyat key asal se mila hai usay doosri maiyat key sab waarison key hisson se zarb den ge. is terhan maa ko (4) chacha ko pehlay masla se (2) aur dosray masla se (3) aur kul (5) miley aur khaawand ko (3) miley .


*Tawaafuq ki misaal*


Doosri maiyat ka woh hissa jo usay pehli maiyat key asal masla se mila hai, is key aur is key asal key darmiyaan tawafuq ki nisbat ho to un ka tawaafiq ( al-qasim -ul- mushtrak -ul- aazm ) maloom karen. ab doosri maiyat key asal ko is tawaafuq se taqseem karen haasil taqseem ko pehli maiyat key asal se zarb den, haasil zarb dono maslon ki jami’a hogi. phir is Adad se pehli maiyat key sab waarison key hisson key sath zarb den, aur jawaab jami’a key tehat likhain. ab doosri maiyat key hissa ko jo usay pehli maiyat se mila hai usay isi tawaafuq key sath taqseem karen. aur jawaab ko doosri maiyat key sab waarison key hissa key sath zarb den, jin waarison ko dono maslon se alag alag hissa mila hai un ko jama karen. aur jami’a key tehat likhain .


*Misaal*

Aik aadmi faut ho gaya. is ne apni biwi, beti aur ‘Aini bhaai ko zindah choda. tarka ki taqseem se pehlay beti faut hogi aur apna khaawand, beti aur mazkoorah baala waarison ko zindah choda (yani maa ko jo pehlay masla mein biwi thi. aur chacha ko pehlay masla mein ‘Aini bhaai tha) .

*Hal*

Pehli maiyat ka asal masla (8) hai biwi ko (1/8) (1) mila, beti ko (1/2) (4) miley aur baqi (3) ‘Aini bhaai

ne bator -e- asbah liye. doosri maiyat ( beti ) ka asal masla (12) hai. maa ko (1/6) (2) miley jo pehlay masla mein biwi thi khaawand ko (1/4) ( 3 ) miley, beti ko (1/2) (6) miley aur baqi (1) chacha ko miley jo pehlay masla mein ‘Aini bhaai tha. doosri maiyat ( beti ) ka asal masla (12) hai aur usay pehli maiyat key asal se (4) miley hain. (4) aur (12) key darmiyaan tawaafuq bir robo’u ki nisbat hai, asal (12) ko (4) se taqseem kya (12÷4=3) haasil taqseem (3 ) ko pehli maiyat ( biwi ) key asal (8) se zarb diya (3×8=24) haasil zarb (24) is masla ki jami’a hai. dobaarah (3) se pehli maiyat key sab waarison key hisson se zarb diya ab doosri maiyat key hissa ko tawaafuq (4) se taqseem kya. (4÷4 = 1) haasil taqseem (1) ko doosri maiyat kye sab waarison key sath zarb diya. aur un key jawaabaat ko jami’a tehat likha. is terhan biwi ko do hissay miley un ka mjmoa’h (2+3 ) (5) biwi ka hissa hai is terhan ‘Aini bhaai ko do hissay miley un ka mjmoa’h (9+1=10) (10) is ka hissa hai. khaawand ko (3) miley aur doosri maiyat ki beti ko (6) miley .

*Note*

Agar doosri maiyat key baad teesra waaris faut ho jaaye to munaaskha ki pehli jami’a ko pehli maiyat ka asal tasawwur kiya jaaye ga. aur teesri maiyat key asal masla ko doosri maiyat ka asal tasawwur kiya jaaye ga. phir teesri maiyat ko jo pehli jami’a se hissa mila hai. is key aur jo is ka asal masla hai un key darmiyaan dekhen keh kon si nisbat paayi jati hai. phir guzashta tareeqa ki terhan usay hal kiya jaaye ga. isi terhan agar choutha aur panchawaan waaris faut ho jayen to isi terhan amal karte rahen ge. hatta keh munaaskha ki aakhri jami’a haasil kar li jaaye .


*Misaal*

Aik aadmi faut ho gaya aur apni biwi, maa, beti aur ‘Aini behan ko zindah choda. phir tarka ki taqseem se pehlay biwi apne naye khaawand, betay aur mazkoorah waarison ko chode kar faut hogayi , is key baad ‘Aini behan bhi apne khaawand, betay aur mazkoorah waarison ko chode kar faut ho gayi .

 

*Hal*

Pehli maiyat ka asal masla (24) hai. biwi ko (1/8) (3) miley, maa ko (1/6) (/4 ) miley beti ko (1/2) (12) miley aur baqi (5) ‘Aini behan ko bator asbah miley.

Ab doosri maiyat ( biwi ) ka asal masla (4) hai khawand ko (1/4) (1) mila, baqi (3) mein se beti ko ( 1 ) mila, aur betay ko (.2 ) miley. biwi ka asal masla (.4 ) aur is key hissay (3) key darmiyaan Tabaayun ki nisbat hai. lehaza biwi key asal masla (4) ko pehli maiyat key asal masla (24) se zarb diya. ( 4×24=96 ) haasil zarb (96) masla ki pehli jami’a hai. is se maa (16) miley, beti ko do hissay miley un ka majmoa ( 3 +48 = 51), ( 51 ) beti ka hissa hai. ‘Aini behan ko (20) miley khaawand ko (3) aur betay ko (6) miley. ab teesri maiyat ( ‘Aini behan ) ka asal masla ( 12 ) hai. aur usay pehli jami’a se (20) miley hain. (12) aur (20) key darmiyaan tawaafiq bir robo’u ki nisbat hai lehaza ‘Aini behan key asal (12) ko (4 ) se taqseem kiya ( 12÷4=3 ). haasil taqseem (3) se pehlay jamea (96) ko zarb diya ( 3×96=288) haasil zarb (288) is masla ki aakhri jami’a hai. phir pehli jami’a key tehat sab waarison key hisson ko bhi (3) se zarb diya. phir ‘aini behan key hissa ( 20 ) ko (4) se taqseem kiya (20÷4=5 ) haasil taqseem (5) se maa, khaawand aur betay key hisson se zarb diya. aur un key jawaabaat ko jami’a key tehat likha. chunancha aakhri jami’a (288) mein se maa ko (58) miley, beti ko (153) miley. biwi key naye khaawand ko (9) miley is ki beti ko (18) miley ‘aini behan key khaawand ko ( 15 ) miley aur is key betay ko ( 35 ) miley .


*Misaal*

Aik aurat faut hogi aur apne khaawand, maa aur beti ko zindah choda tarka ki taqseem se qabal khaawand faut ho gaya aur apni nai biwi maa aur baap ko zindah choda. phir beti faut hogayi aur apni beti, do beton aur mazkoorah waarison ko zindah choda. phir maa faut hogayi. aur apne khaawand aur ‘aini bhaaiyon ko zindah choda.

*Hal*

khaawand, beti, maa wala masla radd ka masla hai is ki jami’a (16) hai. dosra masla biwi maa aur baap ka Umartain masla hai is ka asal masla (4) hai. khaawand key hissay (4) aur is key asal (4) mein tamaasul ki nisbat hai lehaza (16) munaaskha ki pehli jami’a hai. phir beti faut ho gayi beti ka hissa (9) aur is key asal (6) ke darmiyaan tawaafuq bis sulus hai. lehaza pehli jami’a (16) ko (2) se zarb diya ( 2×16 = 32 ) haasil zarb (32 ) munaaskha ki doosri jami’a hai. phir naani faut hogayi is ka asal (2 ) hai aur is ki tasheeh (4) hai aur is ka hissa (9) hai. (4 ) aur (9) key darmiyaan Tabaayun ki nisbat hai lehaza doosri jami’a ( 32 ) ko (4) se zarb diya ( 32×4=128 ) haasil zarb (128) munaaskha ki aakhri jami’a hai. lehaza jami’a mein se biwi ko (8) miley, maa ko (8) miley, baap ko (16) miley. pehli beti ki beti ko (12) miley, is key pehlay betay ko (24) miley, dosray betay ko bhi (24) miley. phir maa key khaawand ko ( 18 ) miley is key pehlay ‘aini bhaai ko (9) miley aur dosray ‘aini bhaai ko bhi (9) miley. is misaal ka table darj zail hai…


*Misaal*

Aik aadmi faut ho gaya aur apni biwi, beti aur chacha ko zindah choda phir tarka ki taqseem se pehlay beti mazkoorah wurasa ko zindah chode kar faut ho gayi. phir biwi apna khaawand aur do ‘Aini behnon ko zindah chode kar faut ho gayi .

Chaart darj zail hai…

*Hal*

pehlay masla ka asal masla (8) hai. phir beti faut hogayi is ka asal masla (3) aur is ka hissa (4 ) hai. (3) aur (4) key darmiyaan tabaayun ki nisbat hai. chunancha (8 ) ko (3) se zarb diya (8×3=24) haasil zarb (24) munaaskha ki pehli jami’a hai. phir biwi faut hogayi. biwi key masla ka asal masla (6) hai lekin is mein (7 ) tak auwl hai is terhan biwi key hissa (7) aur is key asal masla (7 ) key darmiyaan tamaasul ki nisbat hai lehaza pehli jami’a (24) hi aakhri jami’a ho gayi. is mein se chacha ko (17) miley. biwi key khaawand ko (3) aur is ki do ‘aini behnon ko (4) miley har aik ko (2) milley .


*Misaal*

Aik aadmi faut ho gaya is ne biwi, do betay ( alif ) aur ( bay ) is key batan se aik aur beta ( jeem ) aur beti mut’allaqa biwi key batan se zindah chodey. phir tarka ki

taqseem se qabal beta ( jeem ) faut ho gaya is ne apni maa aur mazkoora wurasa zindah chodey. phir beta ( alif ) apne do akhiyaafi bhaaiyon aur mazkoorah wurasa ko zindah chode kar faut ho gaya. phir beta ( bay ) mazkoorah wurasa ko zindah chode kar faut ho gaya. phir biwi apne do betay jo guzashta masla mein akhiyaafi bhaai hain aur deegar mazkoorah waarison ko zindah chode kar faut ho gayi .

 

*Misaal*

 

4 ka hl shuda table aglay safha par mojood hai .

 


*Mashqi sawal*


Aik aadmi faut ho gaya is ne apne do betay aur do betiyan zindah choden phir tarka ki taqseem se pehlay aik beta faut ho gaya aur apni biwi, beti aur masla mein mazkoorah wurasa ko zindah choda. aik aadmi faut ho gaya. apni teen betiyan, maa aur aik bitiyaa ( apni mut’allaqa biwi ke batan se ) ko zindah choda. tarka ki taqseem se qabal aik beti faut hogayi aur apna khaawand, beti aur mazkoorah wurasa ko zindah choda. phir beta faut ho gaya aur apni biwi, do baitiyon aur mazkoorah wurasa ko zindah choda .

Aik aadmi faut ho gaya. aur maa, baap aur do baityon ko zindah choda, phir tarka ki taqseem se qabal aik beti mazkoorah wurasa ko zindah chode kar faut ho gayi. aik aadmi apni biwi, beti aur betay ko zindah chode kar faut ho gaya. phir tarka ki taqseem se pehlay beti mazkoorah wurasa ko zindah chode kar faut hogayi .

Aik aurat apna khaawand, maa, do ‘aini behnain aur do akhiyaafi behnain ko zindah chode kar faut ho gayi . phir tarka ki taqseem se qabal khaawand apni biwi , maa aur baap ko zindah chode kar faut ho gaya .

Aik aurat apne khaawand, maa aur ‘Aini behan ko zindah chode kar faut hogayi. phir tarka ki taqseem se qabal khaawand ne mazkoorah ‘Aini behan se shadi kar li aur phir apni biwi, do baitiyon, maa aur baap ko zindah chode kar faut ho gaya .

 

REFERENCE:
Book: “Islam Ka Qanoon-e-Warasaat”
By Salah Uddin Haider Lakhwi.

 

 

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