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14. Hamal ki Waraasat.

*Meeras-ul-Hamal ( Hamal ki waarsat )*

Hamal ke lughwi aur istilahi maienay:_

*Lughwi maienay:_*

 

Hamal lughat mein saqal ke maienay mein aata hai.

 

*Istilahi maeinay:_*

 

Maa ke reham mein jo nutfa qaraar pa jaata hai chahay muzakar ho ya mo’annas usay hamal kehte hain.

 

Hamal ki jins ghair maloom hoti hai. pata nahi woh larka hai ya larki aur yeh bhi nahi keh sakte ke woh zindah peda hota hai ya nahi. agar zindah peda ho to woh apne Moris ki jaedaad ka waaris hoga. aur agar woh murda peda howa to woh waaris nahi hoga.

hamal chunkay mjhool-ul-wasaf hota hai. is liye maiyat ki jaedad ki hatmi taqseem mumkin nahi hai. behtar yeh hai ke waza hamal ke baad jaedad taqseem ki jaye. lekin dosray wurasa jo hamal ke hamrah tarka mein shareek hain un ke halaat ke mad nazar jaedad ki aarzi taqseem ki ja sakti hai. phir paidaiesh ke baad hatmi taqseem ki jaye gi.


*Hamal ke waris bannay ki Sharot (Sharot irs۔e۔hamal):*


Hamal ke waris bannay ki do shartain hain… 

1- Moris ki mout ke waqt hamal maa ke reham mein mojood hona chahiye. yeh tab saabit hota hai jab bacha ki paidaiesh muqarara waqt ke andar andar ho. is muddat mein foqaha ke darmiyaan ikhtilaaf paaya jata hai .

Ahnaaf ke nazdeek hamal ki muddat ziyaada se ziyaada do saal hai.

Imam Ahmed aur imam Shafi (رحمہما اللہ) ke haan hamal ki aksar muddat chaar saal hai. aur Imam Maalik ke haan paanch saal hai. lekin sab fuqaha ka is par ijma hai ke hamal ki aqal muddat chay mah hai. agar koi bacha Moris ki mout ke baad aksar muddat ke andar peda ho to woh waris hoga aur agar aksar muddat ke baad peda howa to woh maiyat ka waris nahi hoga .

agar hamal maiyat ka apna nahi balkay is ke maa, baap, beta ya bhaai waghera ka ho to is ke waaris ban’nay ki yeh shart hai ke maiyat ki wafaat ko chay mah pooray hotay hi ya is se pehlay bacha peda ho. agar chay mah ke baad peda howa to woh waris nahi banay ga. kyunkay mumkin hai ke maiyat ki wafaat ke waqt woh aurat haamla nah ho. aur hamal baad mein thehra ho. jab shak peda ho gaya to bacha waris nahi ban sakta kyunkay waris ban’nay ki bunyadi shart yeh hai ke hamal Moris ki wafaat ke waqt mojood ho .


2- Hamal maa ke reham se zindah peda ho. is ki zindagi ke assaar jan’nay ki mukhtalif soorten hain. maslan paidaiesh ke waqt bachay ka chilana. chheenkh maarna ya rona waghera jaisa ke Syedna Jabir (رضی اللہ عنہ) se riwaayat hai

 

قَالَ : قَالَ النَّبِیُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَیْهِ وَسَلَّمَ الطفل لا یصلى علیه وَلَا یَرِثُ وَلَا یُورَثُ حَتى یَسْتَهلَّ

 

(ابن ماجه، الترمذی).

 

“Bacha jab tak paidaiesh ke waqt chikhe, chalaye nah to is ki namaz-e- janaza nahi parhi jaye gi. aur nah hi woh waris hoga aur nah hi dosray is ke waris hon ge“


*Hamal walay masla ko hal karne ka tareeqa:*


Hamal walay masla ko do dafaa hal kya jaye ga. aik dafaa hamal ko muzakar tasawwur karen ge aur doosri dafaa hamal ko mo’annas tasawwur karen ge. dono masloo ke asal masla agar mukhtalif hon to inhen muttahid yani aik jaisa banana hoga. woh is terhan ke dekhna hoga ke dono usoolon ke darmiya tmaasul, Tabaeen , tawafiq mein se koi si nisbat payi jaati hai. agar dono usoolon ke darmiyan tamaasul ki nisbat ho to un mein se kisi aik ko hamal ki jaamea bana’yin ge, aur agar un ke darmiyan tabaaeen ki nisbat ho to muzak’kar walay asal ko mo’annas walay asal se aur is ke tehat sab waarison ke hisson se zarb den ge. isi terhan mo’annas walay asal ko muzakar walay asal se aur is ke tehat sab warison ke hisson se zarb den ge. aur agar un ke darmiyan tawafiq ki nisbat ho to muzakar walay asal ke vfaq ko mo’annas walay poooray asal se aur is ke tehat sab warison ke hisson se zarb den ge isi terhan mo’annas walay asal ke vfaq ko muzakar walay poooray asal se aur is ke tehat sab warison ke hisson se zarb den ge. phir kisi aik tasheeh shuda asal ko hamal ki jamea banayen ge .

jis waris ka hissa un dono sooraton mein nahi badla usay is ka poora hissa den ge. jis waris ka hissa kisi masla mein kam ho gaya to usay kam diya jaye ga. agar koi waris dono sooraton mein se kisi soorat mein mahroom ho jata hai to usay is aarzi taqseem se kuch nahi diya jaye ga. agar koi waris dono sooraton mein mahroom hota hai to woh jaedad se mahroom hoga. is aarzi taqseem mein jo hissay bach jaye ge inhen hamal ki paidaiesh tak mehfooz aur moqoof kar liya jaye ga. phir bachay ki paidaiesh ke baad dekha jaye ga. jo mazeed hissay ka haqdaar hoga usay is moqoof se day diya jaye ga. is aarzi taqseem mein se warison se zamin liya jaye ga ke jinhein un ke haq se ziyada hissa mila hai to woh deegar worasa ko waapas kar den ge. hamal agar dosray warison ke liye Hijaab hai to hamal ki paidaiesh tak tarka taqseem nahi kiya jaye ga. hamal agar aik soorat mein waris banta hai aur doosri soorat mein waris nahi banta to is ka poora hissa is ki paidaiesh tak moqoof rakha jaye ga. hamal agar dono sooraton mein waris nahi banta to is ki paidaiesh ka intzaar nahi kiya jaye ga. balkay tarka ko warison ke darmiyaan taqseem kar diya jaye ga. maslan aik aadmi ne apna baap aur maa jo dosray khawand se haamla hai zindah chorra. is misaal mein hamal ikhyaafi bhai se ya ikhyaafi behan hain dono baap ki mojoodgi ki wajah se mahroom hain is liye baap aur maa ke darmiyan tarka taqseem kar diya jaye ga. maa ( 1/3 ) miley ga aur baqi ( 2 / 3 ) baap le ga .


*Tamaasul ki misaal:*


 

Aik aadmi faut ho gaya aur apne baap aur haamla biwi ko zindah chorra. is misaal ki dono sooraton mein asal masla ( 24 ) hai. is liye is ki jamea ( 24 ) hai. biwi ko ( 3 ) baap ko ( 4 ) is ka kam wala hissa mila aur baqi ( 17 ) moqoof hain. agar larka peda howa to saaray wohi le ga. aur agar larki peda hui to larki ko ( 17 ) mein se ( 12 ) den ge aur baqi ( 5 ) baap ko mazeed den ge. is terhan baap ko ( 9 ) milein gaye .


*Tabaayun ki misaal:*


Aik aadmi faut hogaya aur apna pota, poti aur betay ki haamla biwi ko zindah chorra. muzakar walay masla ka asal ( 5 ) hai aur mo’annas walay masla ka asal ( 4 ) hai dono ke darmiyan tabaieen ki nisbat hai. lehaza is ki jamea ( 20-5×4 ) haasil zarb ( 20 ) hai. poti ko is ka kam hissa ( 8 ) den ge. aur poti ko bhi is ka kam hissa ( 4 ) den ge. baqi ( 8 ) moqoof hain. agar larka peda howa to saaray moqoof wohi le ga. aur agar larki peda hui to woh ( 8 ) mein se ( 5 ) le gi aur baqi ( 3 ) mein se pota mazeed ( 2 ) le ga aur poti mazeed ( 1 ) le gi .

 


*Tawaafuq ki misaal:*


 

Aik aurat faut hogayi is ne apna khawand aur maa ko jo is ke baap se se haamla hai zindah chorra. ( hamal Aini bhai hai ya Aini behan ) muzakar walay maslay ka asal ( 6 ) hai aur mo’annas walay masla ka asal ( 8 ) kyunkay is mein aul waqay howa hai. ( 6 ) aur ( 8 ) ke darmiyan tawafiq bin’nisaf ki nisbat hai. lehaza asal ( 6 ) ko ( 4 ) se zarb den ge aur asal ( 8 ) ko ( 3 ) se zarb den ge. is masla ki jamea ( 24 ) hai. is aarzi taqseem mein khawand ko is ka aqal hissa ( 9 ) den ge. aur maa ko is aqal hissa ( 6 ) den ge aur baqi ( 9 ) moqoof hon gaye. agar larki peda hui to woh saaray moqoof le gi aur agar larka peda ho to woh ( 9 ) mein se ( 4 ) le

  1. aur baqi ( 5 ) mein se khawand mazeed ( 3 ) le ga aur maa mazeed ( 2 ) le gi .

*Mashqi sawal:*


 

1 shakhs faut ho gaya aur mandarja zail worasa zindah chhorey. darj zail masail ko hal karen aur btayin aarzi taqseem mein hamal ke liye kya moqoof rakha jaye ga.

 

1- baap, poti aur apni haamla biwi.

2- do betiyan, poti aur apne betay ki haamla biwi.

3- maa, aieni bhai aur apni haamla biwi.

4- baap, maa, beti aur betay ki haamla biwi.

5- maa, aieni behan aur apni haamla biwi.

6- Aieni behan, 2 ikhyaafi behnain, maa maiyat ke baap se haamla.

7- biwi, beti, aieni behan aur apne betay ki haamla biwi.

8- baap, maa, beti aur apni haamla biwi.

9- baap aur apni maa jo haamla hai.

10- beta aur apni haamla biwi .

 

REFERENCE:
Book: “Islam Ka Qanoon-e-Warasaat”
By Salah Uddin Haider Lakhwi.

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