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16. Mafqood ul Khabar(Gumshuda shakhs) ki Waraasat.

*Mafqood۔ul۔khabar ki meeras*

*Lughwi aur Istilahi ma’ani*

*Lughwi ma’ani:* Mafqood baab za’ra’ba yazribu se ism-e-maf’ool ka Sigha hai. jis ke ma’ani gum paana ke atay hain jaisa ke (fuqadat-ul-sha’i) mein ne cheez ko gum paaya, quran mein surah Yousuf mein hai (قالوا نفقد صواع الملک) unhon ne kaha ”hm baadshah ka wazan karne ka pemaana gum paate hain.

*Istilahi ma’ani:*

Meeras mein mafqood aisay shakhs ko kaha jata hai jis ka pata nah chal sakay ke woh kahan hai aur nah koi yeh jaanta ho ke woh zindah hai ya faut ho gaya hai.


*Ahwaal-ul-mafqood: (mafqood ki do haalatain hain)*

*Pehli haalat:* Mafqood agar mo’annas hai yani is ki jaedad ko is ke rishtaydaaron ke darmiyan taqseem karna hai. to usay zindah tasawwur kiya jaye ga, aur is ki jaedaad is ke warisoon mein taqseem nahi ki jayegi. hatta ke is ki zindagi ya mout ki yaqeeni khabar aa jaye ya phir qaazi is ke mout ka a’laan kar day. mafqood ki biwi se bhi koi doosra shadi nahi kar sakta, is ke muta’liq sayidana Ali رضی اللہ عنہ ka qoul hai.

(ھی امرأة ابتلیت فلتصبر و لا تنکح حتی یاتیھا یقین موته)

(saabooni :۱۲۷)

mafqood ki muddat intizaar ki ta’yeen ke baray mein fuqaha’a ke darmiyaan ikhtilaaf paaya jata hai.

*Al-Ahnaaf:* Imam abbu Hanifa رحمۃ اللہ علیہ ka qoul hai ke yoom-e-wilaadat se leker (90) saal ki Umar ko pouhanchanay tak intizaar kiya jayega. Imam abbu Yousuf رحمۃ اللہ علیہ ka qoul “ke wiladat ke din se le kar (105) saal tak intizaar kiya jaye ga aur Imam Mohammad رحمۃ اللہ علیہ ka qoul hai ke (110) saal pooray kiye jaye ge, Imam Al-ul-Hasan bin Ziyaad رحمۃ اللہ علیہ kehte hain ke (120) saal ki Umar ko pouhanchanay tak intizaar kiya jayega. lekin Ahnaaf mein raaja’h qoul hai ke (90) saal ki umar ko pouhanchanay tak intizaar kiya jaye aur isi fatwa par amal hai.

(الشریفیة شرح السراجیة: ۱۳۷)

*Al-Shaafiyah:* Imam Shaafi’ee رحمة اللہ علیہ ki raaiye hai ke mafqood ka (90) saal ki Umar ko pouhanchanay tak intizaar kiya jaye.

*Al-Maalkiyah:* Imam maalik رحمة اللہ علیہ ke nazdeek muddat-e-intzaar yoom-e-wilaadat se le kar (70) saal tak pouhanchanay ki hai. woh tirmizi shareef ki hadees se istidlaal karte hain. Nabi Akramﷺ ne farmaya:

(اعمار امتی بین الستین والسبعین)

” meri ummat ki umrein (60 aur 70) saal ke darmiyaan hongi.”

*Al-Hanaabilah:* Imam Ahmed bin hunmbel رحمۃ اللہ علیہ ki raye bhi (90) saal ki Umar tak pouhanchanay ki hai lekin woh qaazi ki swaabdeed par chorh dete hain ke qaazi mafqood ki gum shudgi ke asbaab ko mad-e-nazar rakhtay hue koi bhi muddat muqarrar kar sakta hai. maslan mafqood agar behri jahaaz mein safar kar raha tha jahaaz doob gaya aur kuch log is mein zindah bach gaye. ya mafqood is ilaaqa mein gaya jahan khanah-e-jungi ho rahi hai. un halaat mein (90) saal tak intizaar ki kya zaroorat hai. is tarha ke ahwaal ko mad-e-nazar rakhtay hue qaazi jo hukum saadir kere ga is par amal kiya jaye ga aur yahi mazhab sahih ma’loom hota hai.

واللہ اعلم بالصواب

*Mafqood ke wurasa’a*


Mafqood agar Mooris hai aur qaazi is ki mout ka a’laan kar deta hai to is ke waaris kon kon hongy. is maamla mein bhi fuqaha’a ke darmiyaan ikhtilaaf paaya jata hai. Imam Abu Hanifa , Imam Shaf’i aur Imam Ahmed ke nazdeek jo waaris qaazi ke a’laan ke waqat zindah hain wohi waris honge, aur jo waaris a’laan se qabal wafaat pa gye hain woh waaris nahi banei gy. lekin Imam Maalik ke nazdeek jo waaris mafqood ki ghumshudgi ke ibtidayi ayyaam mein zindah thay woh waaris hon ge, agar woh wafaat pagye hon to un ke zindah waris apne asal waris ke hissa ke waris honge.

*Al-Raaj’ay:* Ayimah salaasa ka mazhab raaj’ay maloom hota hai kyunkay Mooris ki mout ke waqt hayaat waaris hatmi shart hai. is liye jo a’laan se qabal wafaat pa gaye woh waris nahi ban satke kyunkay mafqood ki gumshudgi ke ayyaam mein is par mout ka hukum nahi lagaya ja sakta.


*Mafqood ki mout ke a’laan ke baad wapsi:*


Agar qaazi ne mafqood ki mout ka a’laan kar diya to is ki jaedaad mustahiq wurasa’a ke darmiyaan taqseem kar di jayegi. ab agar baad mein maloom ho gaya ke woh zindah hai ya woh khud hi haazir ho gaya. to is ki jaedaad ka itna hissa hi usay dilaaya jayega. jo wurasa’a ke paas bia’inihi mojood hoga. agar unhon ne usay isti’maal kar liya ya is mein tabdeeli kar li ya farokht kar diya to is ke waaris usay waapas karne ke zaamin nahi honge .

*Doosri haalat:* Jab mafqood kisi ka waaris ho to woh is waqt tak waaris nahi hoga. jab hatmi tor par is ki zindagi ke saboot nah milein. mafqood ki mout ke a’laan se pehlay agar koi Moris faut ho gaya to mafqood is ka waaris hoga. agar mafqood kisi masa’la mein akela hi waaris hai ya is ke hamrah aur bhi waaris hain. lekin woh mafqood ki wajah se waraasat se kulia’tan mahroom hain to Mooris ki saari jaedaad ko mafqood ke liye moqoof rakha jayega. agar woh zindah agaya to saari ki saari moqoof jaedad le leigei. agar qaazi ne is ki mout ka hukum sadir kar diya to moqoof jaedaad baqi wuraasa’a ko muntaqil ho jayegi. maslan aik aadmi Aa’ni bhai aur do Aa’ni behnain aur beta mafqood-ul-khabar ko chorh kar faut ho gaya. is misaal mein saari jaedaad mafqood ke liye moqoof rahay gi kyunkay betay ki mojoodgi mein Aa’ni bhai behnain waraasat se mahroom hain. lekin qaazi ke mafqood ki mout ka hukum sadir karne ke baad saari moqoof jaedaad Aa’ni bhai aur behnoon ke darmiyaan (للذكر مثل حظ الانثیین) ke tehat taqseem ki jayegi.

agar mafqood ke hamrah masa’lah mein aisay waaris bhi mojood hain jo is ki mout aur hayaat ki haalat mein bhi waaris hote hain to aisay masloon ko hal karne ke liye darj zail amal karna hoga.

Aisay masail ko do dafaa hal kiya jayega. aik dafaa mafqood ko zindah aur doosri dafaa murda tasawwur karen gei. agar dono masloon ke asal mukhtalif hon to inhen muttahid banaaya jaaye ga jaisa ke hamal ke masaail mein wazaahat ki gayi hai. phir kisi aik asal ko jamea bana kar mafqood ke ilaawa baqi waarison ko dono masa’loon mein se un ka aqal hissa diya jaye ga aur baqi hissa ko mafqood ki haalat zahir honay tak moqoof rakha jayega.

*Misaal(1): Tamaasul ki misaal:* Aik shakhs apni biwi, maa, al’laati bhai aur a’ani bhai mafqood ko

*Misaal (2): Taba’een ki misaal:*

Aik aurat faut ho gayi us ne apna beta, beti aur teesra beta mafqood ko zindah chhora.

Hayaat waalay masla ka asal (5) hai aur wafaat waalay ka asal (3) hai. Dono ke darmiyaan taba’een ki nisbat hai. Lehaza is masla ki jamea (15) hai. Beta (6) aur beti (3) legi, un ke aqal hissay aur baqi (6) mafqood ki haalat zahir honay tak mauqoof rakhenge, agar mafqood zindah huwa to saaray mauqoof shuda hissa le lega. Agar us ki mout saabit ho gayi to pehla beta mazeed (4) aur beti mazeed (2) legi.

*Misaal(3): Tawafuq ki misaal:* Aik aurat apna khawand, maa, al’lati behan aur a’ani bhai mafqood ko chhor kar faut ho gayi.

Is misaal mein hayaat waalay masa’la ka asal (6) hai aur wafaat waalay masa’la ka asal (8) hai, donon ke darmiyaan tawaafuq bin’nisf ki nisbat hai. Is ki jamea (24) hai. (Asal 6 ko 4 se zarab dainay se aur asal 8 ko 3 se zarab dainay se) khaawand ko (9) denge, aur maa ko (4) baqi (11) mauqoof honge. Agar Aa’ini bhai zindah hua to woh (11) mein se (8) le ga aur baqi (3) khaawand ko mazeed denge, aur agar Aa’ini bhai faut ho gaya to mauqoof shuda (11) mein se (9) al’lati behan legi aur baqi (2) maa ko mazeed denge.

REFERENCE:
Book: “Islam Ka Qanoon-e-Warasaat”
By Salah Uddin Haider Lakhwi.

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