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38. IDDAH KE MASAIYL [Prescribed waiting period)

IDDAH KE MASAIL

 

IDDAH KE MASAIL:

 

1. TALAAQ KI IDDAH:

 

  1. Besh Sini (bari umar) ki waja se khawateen ko haiz aana band hogaya ho to unki Iddat-eTalaaq teen maah hai.

 

     2. Kam Sini (kam umar) ki wajha se jin khawateen ko haiz aana abhi shuru nahi hua ho unki iddat-e-talaaq bhi teen maah hai.

 

     3. Haamlah khawateen ki iddat waza’ hamal hai, khwah chand yaum ho ya chand hafte ho ya chand maah.

 

 { وَالّٰـِیْٔ یَئِسْنَ مِنَ الْمَحِیْضِ مِنْ نِّسَآئِکُمْ اِنِ ارْتَبْتُمْ فَعِدَّتُہُنَّ ثَلاَ ثَۃُ اَشْہُرٍ وَّ الّٰـِیْٔ لَمْ یَحِضْنَ ط وَ اُوْلاَتُ الْاَحْمَالِ اَجَلُہُنَّ اَنْ یَّضَعْنَ حَمْلَہُنَّ ط وَ مَنْ یَّتَّقِ اللّٰہَ یَجْعَلْ لَّہٗ مِنْ اَمْرِہٖٖ یُسْرًا}

 

“Aur tumhari aurton mein se jo haiz se mayus hochuki hon unke mu’amle mein agar tumhen koi shak ho to (Ma’aloom hona chahiye keh) unki iddah teen mahine hai aur yehi hukm unka hai jinhen abhi haiz na ayaa ho aur haamlah aurton ki iddah ye hai keh unka waza’ hamal hojae. Jo shakhs Allah se dare uske mu’amle mein wo sahulat peda kardeta hai.” 

 

[Surah Talaaq: 65: 04]

 

2, DAURAN-E-IDDAH AURAT DUSRA NIKAAH NAHI KARSAKTI:

 

 { وَاِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاۗءَ فَبَلَغْنَ اَجَلَهُنَّ فَلَا تَعْضُلُوْھُنَّ اَنْ يَّنْكِحْنَ اَزْوَاجَهُنَّ اِذَا تَرَاضَوْا بَيْنَهُمْ بِالْمَعْرُوْفِ ۭ ذٰلِكَ يُوْعَظُ بِهٖ مَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللّٰهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْاٰخِرِ ۭ
ذٰلِكُمْ اَزْكٰى لَكُمْ وَاَطْهَرُ ۭ وَاللّٰهُ يَعْلَمُ وَاَنْتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُوْنَ ٢٣٢؁} (232:2)

 

Aur jab tum apni aurton ko talaaq do aur woh apni iddat poori kar len to unhen unke khawindon se nikah karne se na roko jabke woh ma’ruf tariqe se aapas mein munakehat ke liye raazi hon. Yeh naseehat unhen ki jaati hai jinhen tum mein se Allah Ta’la par aur qayamat ke din par yaqeen o-imaan ho. Ismein tumhari behtreen safaee aur pakeezgi hai. Allah Ta’la jaanta hai aur tum nahi jaante.

 

[Surah Baqarah: 02: 232]

 

3. ZAMANA E IDDAH MEIN RAJA’i TALAAQ WALI AURAT KO APNE SAATH RAKHNA CHAHIYE:  

 

Zamana-e-Iddah mein Shohar Raja’ae talaaq waali Aurat ke naan nafqe ka zimmedaar hai.

 

 { اَسْکِنُوْہُنَّ مِنْ حَیْثُ سَکَنْتُمْ مِّنْ وُّجْدِکُمْ وَلاَ تُضَآرُّ وْہُنَّ لِتُضَیِّقُوْا عَلَیْہِنَّ ط وَ اِنْ کُنَّ اُوْلاَتِ حَمْلٍ فَانْفِقُوْا عَلَیْہِنَّ حَتّٰی یَضَعْنَ حَمْلَہُنَّ ج فَاِنْ اَرْضَعْنَ لَکُمْ فَآتُوْہُنَّ اُجُوْرَہُنَّ ج وَاْتَمِرُوْا بَیْنَکُمْ بِمَعْرُوْفٍ ج وَ اِنْ تَعَاسَرْتُمْ فَسَتُرْضِعُ لَہٗ اُخْرٰی }

 

“Aurton ko (Zamane iddah mein) us jagah rakho jahan tum rahte ho, jo bhi jagah tumhe muyassar ho aur tang karne ke liye aurton ko mat sataao. Phir agar wo tumhare (bachhe ko) doodh pilaen to unki ujrat unhen do aur bhale tariqe se (Ujrat ka mu’amla) baahmi gufto- shaneed se tae karlo lekin agar tumne (ujrat tae karne mein) ek dusre ko tang kiya to bachhe ko koi aur Aurat doodh pilalegi.

 [Surah Talaaq:65: 06]

 

  • Ghair haamlah aur madkhula mutallaqah ki iddah teen tuhr ya teen haiz hai.

 

  • Ghair madkhula mutallaqah ki koi iddah nahi.

 

4. JIS AURAT KA SHOHAR FAUT HOJAEY USKI IDDAH:

 

Jis Aurat ka shohar faut hojaey uski iddah chaar(4) maah aur dus(10) din hai.

 

عَنْ اُمِّ عَطِیَّۃَ رَضِیَ اللّٰہُ عَنْہَا اَنَّ رَسُوْلَ اللّٰہِ   صلی اللّٰه علیہ وسلم    قَالَ (( لاَ تَحِدُّ امْرَأَۃٌ عَلٰی مَیِّتٍ فَوْقَ ثَلاَثٍ اِلاَّ عَلٰی زَوْجٍ اَرْبَعَۃَ اَشْہُرٍ وَ عَشْرًا وَ لاَ تَلْبَسُ ثَوْبًا مَصْبُوْغًا اِلاَّ ثَوْبَ عَصْبٍ وَ لاَ تَکْتَحِلُ وَ لاَ تَمَسُّ طِیْبًا اِلاَّ اِذَا طَہُرَتْ نُبْذَۃً مِنْ قُسْطٍ اَوْ اَظْفَارٍ)) رَوَاہُ مُسْلِمٌ.

 

Hazrat Umme ‘Atiya (رضی اللہ عنہما) se riwayat hai keh: Rasool Allah (ﷺ) ne farmaya: “Koi Aurat mayyat par sog ke liye teen din se ziyada muqarrar na kare, sivaey apne shohar ke, jiske liye chaar maah dus din ki iddah hai. Is dauran aurat ranga hua kapra na pahene illah yeh keh rangdaar bana hua ho, na surma lagaey, na khushboo istemal kare, albatta jab haiz se paak ho to khoon ki badbu dur karne ke liye (m’amooli si) qast ya azfaar ki khushbu istemal karsakti hai.”

 

[Sahih Muslim]

 

5. KHUL’A HASIL KARNE WAALI AURAT KI IDDAH:

 

Khul’a lene waali aurat ki iddah ek(1) Haiz hai.

 

Jis aurat ka shohar faut hogaya usey iddah ka zamana har surat mein apne shohar ke hi ghar mein ghuzaarna chahiye .

 

Zarurat ke tahat ghar se niklne ki rukhsat hai lekin raat ghar aakar basar karna zaruri hai.

 

 عَنْ زَیْنَبَ بِنْتِ کَعْبِ بْنِ عُجْرَۃَ رَضِیَ اللّٰہُ عَنْہَا اَنَّ الْفُرَیْعَۃَ بِنْتِ مَالِکِ بْنِ سَنَانٍ رَضِیَ اللّٰہُ عَنْہَا وَ ہِیَ اُخْتُ اَبِیْ سَعِیْدِ نِ الْخُدْرِیِّ   رضی اللّٰه عنہ   اَخْبَرَتْہَا اَنَّہَا جَائَ تْ اِلٰی رَسُوْلِ اللّٰہِ   صلی اللّٰه علیہ وسلم    تَسْأَلُہٗ اَنْ تَرْجِعَ اِلٰی اَہْلِہَا فِیْ بَنِیْ خُدْرَۃَ فَاِنَّ زَوْجَہَا خَرَجَ فِیْ طَلَبِ اَعْبُدٍ لَہٗ اَبْقُوْا حَتّٰی اِذَا کَانُوْا بِطَرَفِ الْقُدُوْمِ لَحِقَہُمْ فَقَتَلُوْہُ فَسَأَلْتُ رَسُوْلَ اللّٰہِ   صلی اللّٰه علیہ وسلم    اَنْ اَرْجِعَ اِلٰی اَہْلِیْ فَاِنِّیْ لَمْ یَتْرُکْنِیْ فِیْ مَسْکَنٍ یَمْلِکُہٗ وَ لَا نَفَقَۃٍ قَالَتْ : فَقَالَ رَسُوْلُ اللّٰہِ ((نَعَمْ )) قَالَتْ :
فَخَرَجْتُ حَتّٰی اِذَا کُنْتُ فِی الْحُجْرَۃِ اَوْ فِی الْمَسْجِدِ دَعَانِیْ اَوْ اَمَرَ بِیْ فَدُعِیَتُ لَہٗ فَقَالَ کَیْفَ ؟ قُلْتِ : فَردَدْتُ عَلَیْہِ الْقِصَّۃَ الَّتِیْ ذکَرْتُ مِنْ شَأْنِ زَوْجِیْ ، قَالَتْ : فَقَالَ ((امْکُثِیْ فِیْ بَیْتِکِ حَتّٰی یَبْلُغَ الْکِتَابَ اَجَلُہٗ )) قَالَتْ : فَاعْتَدَدْتُ فِیْہِ اَرْبَعَۃَ اَشْہُرٍ وَّ عَشْرًا قَالَتْ : فَلَمَّا کَانَ عُثْمَانُ بْنُ عَفَّانَ   رضی اللّٰه عنہ   اَرْسَلَ اِلَیَّ فَسَأَلَنِیْ عَنْ ذٰلِکَ فَاَخْبَرْتُہٗ فَاتْبَعَہٗ وَ قَضٰی بِہٖ۔ رَوَاہُ اَبُوْدَاؤٗدَ[1]   (صحیح)

 

 

Hazrat Zainab binte ka’b ibn Ujrah (رضی اللہ عنہا) se riwayat hai keh Hazrat Abu Saeed khudri (رضی اللہ عنہ ) ki bahen Furai’a ne bataya ke wo Rasool Allah(ﷺ) ke paas aai aur poochha “kya wo Bani Kadrah mein apne ghar jasakti hai? Kyun ke mere khawind ke ghulam bhaag gaey hain wo unhe dhundhne nikle, jab tarf qadoom (ek muqam hai Madina se saat (7 miil par) pahonche to wahan ghulamon ko paaya aur ghulamon ne mere khawind ko mardala. Chunacha main ne Rasool Allah(ﷺ)  se dariyaft kiya “kiya main apne ghar wapis chali jaaun kyunke mera khawind mere liye koi makaan ya kharch wagerah chhorkar nahi mara? 

     Hazrat Furai’a (رضی اللہ عنہا) kahti hain , Rasool Allah (ﷺ) ne farmaya “Haan chali jaao”. Hazrat Furai’a (رضی اللہ عنہا ) kahti hain keh main wahan se nikli, Abhi Masjid ya hujre mein hi thi, to Rasool Allah (ﷺ) ne mjhe kisi ko bulane ka hukm diya aur mjhe bulaya gaya, Nabi Kareem (ﷺ) ne irshaad farmaya, “Tumne kya kaha tha?” Main ne saari baat dobara bayan ki jo main ne apne shohar ke mut’alliq kahi thi, phir Aap(ﷺ) ne farmaya, tum apne ghar mein thairi raho hatta ke iddah poori hojaey.” 

Chunacha main ne us ghar mein 4 maah dus din poore kiye. 

Hazrat Usmaan bin Affan(رضی اللہ عنہ ) jab khalifah bane to mere paas paighaam bheja aur masla daryaft kiya to main ne unhen yahi bataya aur unho ne iske mutabiq faisla kiya.”

 

[Abu Dawood]

 

6. MAFQOOD UL KHABR (GUMSHUDA YA LAAPATA ADMI) SHOHAR KI BIWI CHAAR SAAL INTEZAR KARNE KE BA’AD IDDAH (4 maah 10 din ) guzaarkar dusra nikah karsakti hai.

 

 عَنْ سَعِیْدِ بْنِ الْمُسَیَّبِ   رضی اللّٰه عنہ   اَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ   رضی اللّٰه عنہ   قَالَ اَیُّمَا امْرَأَۃٍ فَقَدَتْ زَوْجَہَا فَلَمْ تَدْرِ أَیْنَ ہُوَ فَاِنَّہَا تَنْتَظِرُ اَرْبَعَ سِنِیْنَ ثُمَّ تَعْتَدُّ اَرْبَعَۃَ اَشْہُرٍ وَّ عَشْرًا ثُمَّ تَحِلُّ ۔ رَوَاہُ مَالِکٌ

 

Hazrat Saeed bin Musaiyyab(رضی اللہ عنہ ) se riwayat hai keh Hazrat Umar bin Khattab (رضی اللہ عنہ ) ne mafqood ul khabr shohar waali aurat ke baare mein  farmaya ke woh chaar saal intezaar kare (chahe to) nikah karle. Ise Malik ne riwayat kiya hai.

 

 

REFERENCE:
BOOK: “TALAQ KE MASAIYL” BY “IQBAL KEELANI”

 

 

 Al-‘lddah (prescribed waiting period):

 

The six types of ‘iddah:

 

  • The ‘iddah of a pregnant woman lasts  until the birth of the baby as Allah, the Exalted, says:

… The waiting period of those who are pregnant is

until they give birth… [al-Talaq 65:4]

  • The ‘iddah of a woman whose husband has died is four months and ten days as Allah, the Exalted, says:

U any of you die and leave behind wives, the wives must keep to themselves and waitforfour months and ten days… [al-Baqarah 2:234]

  • The ‘iddah of a divorced woman who has her menses is three menstrual periods (quru’) as Allah, the Exalted, says:

Divorced women must keep to themselves and waitfor three menstrual periods… [al-Baqarah 2:228]

  • The ‘iddah of a divorced woman who does not menstruate is three months as Allah, the Exalted, says:

Those of your women who despair of having menses have a prescribed waiting period, if you have doubts, of three months, and so have those who do not menstruate… [al-Talaq 65:4]

  • • A woman who did not have sexual intercourse with her husband does not have an ‘iddah as Allah, the Exalted, says:

you who believe! When you marry believing women and then divorce them before you have had sexual intercourse with them, you do not have to wait through prescribed period concerning them… [al­ Ahzab 33:49]

  • A woman whose husband dies before having had sexual intercourse with her must observe the ‘iddah of widows according to a ruling by Ibn Mas’ud, may Allah be pleased with him. Also, Ma’qil al-A§bja’i, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Prophet, the blessing and peace of Allah be upon him. had decreed this.”

 

The Rights Pertaining to the ‘Iddah

 

There are many rights pertaining to the ‘iddah of a woman who is being divorced:

  • There are the rights owed to Allah, glorified and exalted be He, which include obeying His command and seeking His pleasure.
    • The right of the husband is the length of time allowable for him to return to her.
    • The divorced wife has a right to financial support (al­ nafaqah) and to stay safely at home as long as she is in ‘iddah.
    • The right of the children is to have their lineage confirmed and not confused with that of any others.
    • There is also the right ofthe second husband, which is that he is not held accountable for the first husband’s offspring.
  • The Divine Legislator has arranged for the fulfillment of these rights through suitable judgements:
  • In order for the  woman to observe her  duties to Allah, He has arranged for her to stay safely at home, for she should not leave home nor be driven from it.
  • He has also arranged for the fulfillment of her rights by obliging the husband to maintain her in his residence
    • The Divine Legislator has arranged for the fulfillment of the right of the divorcing husband by enabling him to return to his wife as long as she is in ‘iddah.
    • Allah has arranged for the right of the children to be fulfilled by requiring affirmation of their lineage and by linking them to their own father and not to someone else.
    • He has arranged for the right of the second husband to be fulfilled by ensuring that he will marry a woman who is not pregnant and that he will not be obliged to care for another man’s offspring.

These conditions refer to the first and second divorces. that is. the revocable divorces (al-talaq al- raj’i). After the third divorce. the right of the husband to return to his wife is terminated. However. the woman in this case still must observe the legislation of the ‘iddah for  various reasons. For  example,  there must be assurances that she is not pregnant. Thus, the third divorce is governed by the same judgements pertaining to the two previous divorces so that the rules concerning talaq will not change. With the third divorce. however, there is a form of punishment for the husband. The Divine Legislator has made the thrice-divorced wife forbidden for the first husband until she marries another husband. An aspect of the completeness of this penalty is that the Divine Legislator has prolonged the time period in which she is forbidden for him. This shows the serious nature of what the Divine Legislator has intended by this punishment. A husband now knows that his wife will not be allowable for him until she completes an ‘iddah of three menstrual periods and then enters into marriage with another man based on sincere desire. This means that the new marriage cannot be contrived in order to allow her to remarry the first husband.  this being an act which is cursed. She then must be divorced by the second husband and wait for the completion of three more menstrual periods. This extensive waiting period and ahusband’s lack of patience would hopefully cause him to refrain from proclaiming the third divorce.

 

The Wisdom of the ‘Iddah

 

Based on the above discussion. it is possible to summarize the wisdom of the ‘iddah in the following four points:

  • The ‘iddah confirms the knowledge of the purity of the womb so that lineages are not mixed.
    • It magnifies the seriousness of the marriage contract, elevates its value and manifests its honor.
    • It prolongs the time allowed for the divorcing husband to return to his wife so that he might have remorse and reverse his decision; thus he is provided with enough time to enable him to return.
    • It satisfies the right of the husband and manifests to the wife one consequence of losing him. which is not having someone for whom she beautifies and adorns herself.SO For this reason it is legislated that the widow’s mourning period for her husband is longer than that for her father or son.Bl

As we have said, this is the case in relation to the wife who is going through a revocable divorce. As for the wife who is going through the third. irrevocable divorce, we have said that the ‘iddah in relation to her has two meanings: knowing the purity of the womb and chastisement for the husband

 

The Etiquette of the ‘Iddah

 

A wife who is going through a revocable divorce remains safely in the house used by the married couple during her ‘iddah and should not  leave it. This is according to the verse of Allah, the Exalted:

.. Jear Allah, your Lord. Do not expel themfrom their homes, but do so only if they commit a clear act of adultery… [al-Talaq 65:11

Divine legislation has imposed on a husband and wife a  certain etiquette that is fitting for them to observe:

  • His sleeping place should be isolated from her sleeping place. But if they have only one place to sleep, they must put up a curtain between themselves.
  • The husband should request permission if he wants to enter where she is, and he should greet her with “al-salam ‘alaykum.”
  • The wife who is in ‘iddah after a revocable divorce is not prevented from beautifying and adorning herself.

If a husband divorces his wife for a third time, then she becomes irrevocably separated from him and is not allowable for him unless she marries another husband, from whom she is later divorced. This  is  a clearly established legislation (§hari’ah muhkamah). However, some deceitful people attempt to avoid the judgement of Allah by using suspicious practices which are  morally  and  religiously  objectionable. Such a man might contrive a marriage contract between his irrevocably divorced wife and another man in order to cany out this deception. The second husband then divorces her, enabling the former husband to return to her. This is employing tricks in relation to the verse ofAllah, the Exalted,

“U he has divorced her a third time, then she is not lawful for him after that until she has married another husband… ” [al-Baqarah 2:230]

The intent of this noble verse is one thing, but what some people do is another. The verse means that a  divorced woman  must  many another man in an Islamically legislated marriage, not limited by any time frame. Then she stays with  her  new  husband  unless  something  happens between them that leads to their divorce, which must occur according to the manner previously described. After this legitimate divorce, the former husband has a right to propose marriage to her as would any other man.

But people act contrary to this verse and give free reign to the muhallil. This. however. has been forbidden by  the Prophet,  the  blessing and peace of Allah be upon him, in  many  Hadiths.  He,  the blessing and peace  of Allah be upon him, said; •Allah curses  the following people:  the tattoo artist and the one who gets tattooed, the one who fits others for wigs or hairpieces and the one who wears  them,  the muhallil and  the  one who uses a muhallil, the one who takes interest (riba) and the one who pays interest.”83 He,  the  blessing  and peace of Allah be  upon him,  also said in a separate Hadith; “May Allah curse the muhallil and the one who uses a muhallil.”84 He, the blessing and peace of Allah be upon him, also said: “Shall I not inform you about the borrowed stud goat.” They said: “Yes, O Messenger of Allah.” He said: “He is the muhallil. May Allah curse the muhallil and the one who uses a muhallil.“85

Many Hadiths with similar meanings have been narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas, Ibn ‘Umar, Abu Hurayrah and Jabir, may Allah be pleased with them. It is also narrated from ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab who said,  “If I were ever brought a muhallil and the one who used a muhallil, I would surely

stone them both.”86 It is narrated from ‘Uthman,  may Allah be pleased

with him, who said, “There is no marriage except an intentionally sought marriage. There is no deceptive marriage.” Also, lbn ‘Abbas was asked about the muhallil. He replied, “Whoever tries to deceive Allah, Allah will leave him in deception”

Finally, Sufyan al-Thawri said, “If a man marries a woman with the intention to make her allowable for  her first husband  but then  changes his mind and wants to keep her,  she would not be allowable for him until he marries her on a new marriage contract.”87

  1.  al-Khul’ (separation initiated by a wife)

If Islam has given men the right of divorce (talaq). it has also given women the right of khul’. Khul’ literally means that a wife ransoms herself. 88 It is derived from the expression “khala’a al-thawb” (to remove a garment), for a woman is the garment of man and he is her garment. Allah, the Exalted. says:

They (the wives} are like garments for you and you are like

garmentsfor them… [al-Baqarah 2:87]

A verse in Sura al-Baqarah establishes the principle of khul’. Allah, the Exalted, says:

…if you fear that they cannot keep the guidelines set by Allah, there is no sin on the two of them if she returns it (the dowry} in order to end the marriage… [al-Baqarah 2:229]

However, just as the Sunnah shows that talaq is the most disliked of allowable acts before Allah, it also shows that khul’ is hated by Him, glorified be He.89 The condemnation of the women who initiate khul’ is reported in numerous Hadiths. “If a woman requests her husband  to divorce her for a reason other than being harmed, then the smell of Paradise is forbidden for her.”90 “The women who initiate khul’ are hypocrites.”91 “Any woman who requests her husband to divorce her for other than a truly sincere reason will never find the breeze of Paradise.92

Unfortunately, some husbands might try to exploit the principle of khul’ by harming and abusing their wives in order to force them to ransom themselves by returning the dowry. This is exactly what Allah, glorified and exalted be He, has forbidden in this verse:

…do not treat them harshly so that you can take back part ofwhat you have given them… [al-Nisa’ 4:19]

lbn ‘Abbas commented on this verse: “It is when a man has a wife to whom he owes a dowry but whose companionship he dislikes. Thus he harms her so that she ransoms herself.”99

The linguistic meaning of ila’ is to swear an oath (half, qasam). One example of its usage is in the verse of Allah, the Exalted:

Let not those of you who have dignity and wealth swear not to give support to their relatives, to the needy, and to those who have emigrated for the cause ofAllah. Let them pardon andforgive… [al­ Nur 24:22]

The legislative meaning of ila’ is a man’s oath not to approach his wife for sexual intercourse. This  oath of sexual abstinence  was  an old custom of the Arabs before Islam. As a consequence of the husband’s oath, the wife usually spent the rest of her life suspended in a state of being neither married nor divorced. Then the noble Quran came to rectify this custom by ordering the husband to divorce his wife after four months if their married life has become impossible. Allah, the Exalted, says:

Those who swear sexual abstinencefrom their wives must waitfour months. Then if they break the oath (and return to their wives)­ Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. And if they decide on divorce­ Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing. (al-Baqarah 2:226-227]

Zihar is forbidden in accordance with the verse of the Exalted One:

 they have spoken an ill word and a lie… [al-Majadilah 58:21

The one who declares zihar is a liar for treating his wife as if she were his mother. Allah, the Exalted, says:

 they are not their mothers. Their mothers are only those who gave birth to them.. .{al-Mujadilah 58:2]

Allah, the Exalted, also says:

…He has not made your wives, whom you treat as if they were your mothers, your mothers… [al-Ahzab 33:4]

Allah, the Exalted, has revealed His verses concerning zihar:

if  

Allah has surely heard the statement of the one who disputes with you (Muhammad} concerning her husband and who complains to Allah. Allah hears the arguments between both of you, for Allah is All-Hearing, All-Seeing. There are those of you who treat their wives as if they were their mothers; they are not their mothers. Their mothers are only those who gave birth to them: and so they have spoken an ill word and a lie. But Allah is Oft-Pardoning, Oft­ Forgiving. Those who treat their wives as they were their mothers and then go back on what they have said must free a slave before they touch one another. You are admonished by this; and Allah is Well-Aware of what you do. The one who does notfind the means to free a slave must fas t two months consecutively before they both touch one another; and the one who is unable tofast mustfeed sixty poor people. This is so that you might believe in Allah and His Messenger. These are the guidelines set by Allah. And for the disbelievers there is a pairiful punishment. /al-Mujadilah 58:1 -4] 95

These verses dictate that the one who declares zihar against his wife must atone for this sin. The prescribed atonement is to free a slave. If he is unable to do so,  then he should fast for two months consecutively. If he cannot do that, then he must feed 60 poor people. Also, these verses indicate that it is forbidden for the one who declares zihar to touch his wife before atoning for this sin

 

REFERENCES:


[trans. note: This entire paragraph appears as a footnote in Sheik Qhazi’s text. He also makes a brtef menuon of the man who conspires with the first husband lo contrive a marriage with the thrice-divorced wife. The Intention of this contrived maniage is that the
second husband consummates the maniage and then immediately divorces the woman so that the first husband can remarry her. Such a man is called a muhallil and is cursed by Allah. This topic will be discussed below in section 3 of this chapter.I
(trans. note: It appears that Sheik Qhazi is refening here to the “iddah after the third divorce, for he mentions below in section D of this chapter that a wife may beautify herself during the ‘iddah of a revocable divorce.I
See Ibn Qayyim al Jawziyyah, I’lam al-Muwaqqi’in·an Rabb al-‘Alamin.vol.2. p.56. There is also another reason for making the ‘iddah of a widow four months and ten days. It is during this time that it will be known if she is pregnant or not. for a fertilized egg Is an embryonic drop for forty days. then a clot of blood for forty days. then a morsel of flesh for
forty days. This is four months. after which time the soul is blown Into it in its fourth stage of development. Ten more days are added on so that the life of the fetus will be made
apparent by its movement in the womb.
[trans. note: The word “muhallil” means in general one who dissolves or analyzes athing, or one who makes a thing permissible. The word is defined here in its specificapplication to Islamic Law.)
ThisHadithisreportedby al-Nasa’iandAhmadfromlbnMas’ud,mayAllahbepleasedwith him. [trans. note: Sheik .Ghazi has two footnotes explaining two terms used in the Hadith. The first term Is “al-wa§}ilmah,” the tattoo artist, and the second term Is ·a1- wasilah,• the one who fits others for wigs and hairpieces.]
This Hadith is reported by Abu Dawud, al-Tirmidhi and al-Nasa’i from ‘Ali ibn Ab! Talib,may Allah be pleased with him.
This Hadith Is reported by al-Hakim in his Sahih from ‘Uqbah ibn “Amir, may Allah bepleased with him.
See Mq/m.u‘atFatawaIbnTaymiyyah, vol.32, p.93.
See al-Qurtubi. vol.3. p.149
(trans. note: Khu!’ is not actually a divorce (talaq) , which is only the right of a husband.it is a dissolution or annulment of the marriage. According to Ahmad ibn Hanbal, lbn‘Abbas interpreted al-Baqarah 2:229-230 by saying: “Allah has mentioned divorce in thebeginning, ransoming in the middle and divorce after that.” However, it is reported that‘U.tbman held that kbul’ is divorce, but lbn Hanbal did not accept the isnad of that narration. See ChaptersonMarriageand Divorce:Responses of Ibn HanbalandIbnRahwayh. p.108.I
[trans.note:OntheweaknessofthlsopinionseeChapter2,footnote52.J
[trans.note:ThisHadithisreportedintheMl.shkatal-Masabih(Kitabal-Nikah,Babal­Khul’ wa+Talaq, Hadith #3279) . Sheik Nasir al-Din al-Albani says Its chain of narrators (isnad) is good Oayyid).J
[trans. note: This Hadith is reported in the Mi_ahkat al-Masabih (Kitab al-Nikah, Bab al­Kbul’wa-1-Talaq.Hadith#3290).Sheikal-Albanidoesnotcommentonit.)
[trans.note:ThisHadithisreportedbyIboMajah(Kitabal-Talaq,Bab#21).)
!trans.note:SeeMukh.tasarTafsfTIbnKathir,vol.l,p.368. Moredetailsconcerning
}wul’willbementionedinChapter5.)
[trans. note: During the Jahiliyyah period, the pagan Arabs would sometimes make avow of zihar by which a man would abandon his wife without divorcing her merely by saying. “Your back (zahr) is as my mother’s back for me.”)
[trans. note: This verse was revealed concerning lilluwaylah bint Toa’labah. who wascomplaining to the Prophet about her husband, Aws ibn al-Samit. See Chapter 5, section 4,for more information on the topic of zihar.J
 
BOOK REFERENCE:
BOOK:  MARRIAGE & DIVORCE
DR. MUHAMMAD JAMIL GHAZI
 

 

عدت کے مسائل

 

 

مسئلہ نمبر133:بیش سنی کی وجہ سے خواتین کو حیض آنا بند ہوگیا ہو انکی عدت طلاق تین ماہ ہے۔

مسئلہ نمبر134:کم سنی کی وجہ سے جن خواتین کو حیض آنا ابھی شروع نہ ہواہو ان کی عدت طلاق بھی تین ماہ ہے۔

مسئلہ نمبر135:حاملہ خواتین کی عدت وضع حمل ہے ، خواہ چند یوم ہویا چند ہفتے ہو یا چند ماہ۔

 

{ وَالّٰـِیْٔ یَئِسْنَ مِنَ الْمَحِیْضِ مِنْ نِّسَآئِکُمْ اِنِ ارْتَبْتُمْ فَعِدَّتُہُنَّ ثَلاَ ثَۃُ اَشْہُرٍ وَّ الّٰـِیْٔ لَمْ یَحِضْنَ ط وَ اُوْلاَتُ الْاَحْمَالِ اَجَلُہُنَّ اَنْ یَّضَعْنَ حَمْلَہُنَّ ط وَ مَنْ یَّتَّقِ اللّٰہَ یَجْعَلْ لَّہٗ مِنْ اَمْرِہٖٖ یُسْرًا} (4:65)

’’اور تمہاری عورتوں میں سے جو حیض سے مایوس ہو چکی ہوں ان کے معاملہ میں اگر تمہیں کوئی شک ہے تو (معلوم ہونا چاہئے کہ) ان کی عدت تین مہینے ہے اور یہی حکم ان کا ہے جنہیں ابھی حیض نہ آیا ہو اور حاملہ عورتوں کی عدت یہ ہے کہ ان کا وضع حمل ہوجائے جو شخص اللہ سے ڈرے اس کے معاملے میں وہ سہولت پیدا کردیتا ہے۔‘‘ (سورہ طلاق ، آیت نمبر4)

مسئلہ نمبر136:دوران عدت ، عورت دوسرا نکاح نہیں کر سکتی ۔

{ وَاِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاۗءَ فَبَلَغْنَ اَجَلَهُنَّ فَلَا تَعْضُلُوْھُنَّ اَنْ يَّنْكِحْنَ اَزْوَاجَهُنَّ اِذَا تَرَاضَوْا بَيْنَهُمْ بِالْمَعْرُوْفِ ۭ ذٰلِكَ يُوْعَظُ بِهٖ مَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللّٰهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْاٰخِرِ ۭ

[1]

ذٰلِكُمْ اَزْكٰى لَكُمْ وَاَطْهَرُ ۭ وَاللّٰهُ يَعْلَمُ وَاَنْتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُوْنَ ٢٣٢؁} (232:2)

’’جب تم اپنی عورتوں کو طلاق دے چکو اور وہ اپنی عدت پوری کرلیں تو پھر انہیں اپنے (پچھلے) خاوندوں سے نکاح کرنے سے نہ روکو جب وہ معروف طریقے سے باہم مناکحت پر راضی ہوں تمہیں نصیحت کی جاتی ہے کہ ایسی حرکت ہر گز نہ کرنا اگر تم اللہ اور روز آخر پر ایمان رکھتے ہو، تمہارے لئے شائستہ اور پاکیزہ طریقہ یہی ہے کہ اس سے باز رہو ، اللہ جانتا ہے تم نہیں جانتے۔‘‘ (سورہ بقرہ، آیت نمبر232)

مسئلہ نمبر137زمانہ عدت میں رجعی طلاق والی عورت کو اپنے ساتھ رکھنا چاہئے۔

مسئلہ نمبر138:زمانہ عدت میں شوہر رجعی طلاق والی عورت کے نان ونفقہ کا ذمہ دار ہے۔

{ اَسْکِنُوْہُنَّ مِنْ حَیْثُ سَکَنْتُمْ مِّنْ وُّجْدِکُمْ وَلاَ تُضَآرُّ وْہُنَّ لِتُضَیِّقُوْا عَلَیْہِنَّ ط وَ اِنْ کُنَّ اُوْلاَتِ حَمْلٍ فَانْفِقُوْا عَلَیْہِنَّ حَتّٰی یَضَعْنَ حَمْلَہُنَّ ج فَاِنْ اَرْضَعْنَ لَکُمْ فَآتُوْہُنَّ اُجُوْرَہُنَّ ج وَاْتَمِرُوْا بَیْنَکُمْ بِمَعْرُوْفٍ ج وَ اِنْ تَعَاسَرْتُمْ فَسَتُرْضِعُ لَہٗ اُخْرٰی }(6:65)

’’عورتوں کو (زمانہ عدت میں) اسی جگہ رکھو جہاں تم رہتے ہو جیسی کچھ بھی جگہ تمہیں میسر ہو اور تنگ کرنے کے لئے عورتوں کو مت ستاؤ پھر اگر وہ تمہارے (بچے کو) دودھ پلائیں تو ان کی اجرت انہیں دو اور بھلے طریقے سے (اجرت کا معاملہ ) باہمی گفت و شنید سے طے کر لو لیکن اگر تم نے (اجرت طے کرنے میں) ایک دوسرے کو تنگ کیا تو بچے کوکوئی اور عورت دودھ پلا لے گی۔‘‘ (سورہ طلاق ، آیت نمبر6)

مسئلہ نمبر139:غیر حاملہ اور مدخولہ مطلقہ کی عدت تین طہر یا تین حیض ہے۔

وضاحت : حدیث کے لئے مسئلہ نمبر11ملاحظہ فرمائیں

مسئلہ نمبر140:غیر مدخولہ مطلقہ کی کوئی عدت نہیں۔

وضاحت : حدیث کے لئے مسئلہ نمبر24ملاحظہ فرمائیں

مسئلہ نمبر141:جس عورت کا شوہر فوت ہوجائے اس کی عدت سوگ چار ماہ دس دن ہے۔

عَنْ اُمِّ عَطِیَّۃَ رَضِیَ اللّٰہُ عَنْہَا اَنَّ رَسُوْلَ اللّٰہِ   صلی اللّٰه علیہ وسلم    قَالَ (( لاَ تَحِدُّ امْرَأَۃٌ عَلٰی مَیِّتٍ فَوْقَ ثَلاَثٍ اِلاَّ عَلٰی زَوْجٍ اَرْبَعَۃَ اَشْہُرٍ وَ عَشْرًا وَ لاَ تَلْبَسُ ثَوْبًا مَصْبُوْغًا اِلاَّ ثَوْبَ عَصْبٍ وَ لاَ تَکْتَحِلُ وَ لاَ تَمَسُّ طِیْبًا اِلاَّ اِذَا طَہُرَتْ نُبْذَۃً مِنْ قُسْطٍ اَوْ اَظْفَارٍ)) رَوَاہُ مُسْلِمٌ[1]

حضرت ام عطیہ رضی اللہ عنہا سے روایت ہے کہ رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم نے فرمایا ’’کوئی عورت میت پر سوگ کے لئے تین دن سے زیادہ مقرر نہ کرے ، سوائے اپنے شوہر کے ، جس کے لئے چار ماہ دس دن کی عدت ہے ۔ اس دوران عورت رنگا ہوا کپڑا نہ پہنے اِلاَّ یہ کہ رنگدار بنا ہواہو ، نہ سرمہ لگائے ، نہ خوشبو استعمال کرے ، البتہ جب حیض سے پاک ہوتو حیض کے خون کی بدبو دور کرنے کے لئے (معمولی سی) قسط یا اظفار کی خوشبو استعمال کر سکتی ہے۔‘‘ اسے مسلم نے روایت کیا ہے۔

مسئلہ نمبر142:خلع حاصل کرنے والی عورت کی عدت ایک حیض ہے۔

وضاحت : حدیث کے لئے مسئلہ نمبر109ملاحظہ فرمائیں۔

مسئلہ نمبر143:جس عورت کا شوہر فوت ہوگیا ہو اسے عدت کا زمانہ ہر صورت میں اپنے شوہر کے گھر میں ہی گزارنا چاہئے۔

مسئلہ نمبر144:اشد ضرورت کے تحت گھر سے نکلنے کی رخصت ہے لیکن رات گھرآکر بسر کرناضروری ہے۔

عَنْ زَیْنَبَ بِنْتِ کَعْبِ بْنِ عُجْرَۃَ رَضِیَ اللّٰہُ عَنْہَا اَنَّ الْفُرَیْعَۃَ بِنْتِ مَالِکِ بْنِ سَنَانٍ رَضِیَ اللّٰہُ عَنْہَا وَ ہِیَ اُخْتُ اَبِیْ سَعِیْدِ نِ الْخُدْرِیِّ   رضی اللّٰه عنہ   اَخْبَرَتْہَا اَنَّہَا جَائَ تْ اِلٰی رَسُوْلِ اللّٰہِ   صلی اللّٰه علیہ وسلم    تَسْأَلُہٗ اَنْ تَرْجِعَ اِلٰی اَہْلِہَا فِیْ بَنِیْ خُدْرَۃَ فَاِنَّ زَوْجَہَا خَرَجَ فِیْ طَلَبِ اَعْبُدٍ لَہٗ اَبْقُوْا حَتّٰی اِذَا کَانُوْا بِطَرَفِ الْقُدُوْمِ لَحِقَہُمْ فَقَتَلُوْہُ فَسَأَلْتُ رَسُوْلَ اللّٰہِ   صلی اللّٰه علیہ وسلم    اَنْ اَرْجِعَ اِلٰی اَہْلِیْ فَاِنِّیْ لَمْ یَتْرُکْنِیْ فِیْ مَسْکَنٍ یَمْلِکُہٗ وَ لَا نَفَقَۃٍ قَالَتْ : فَقَالَ رَسُوْلُ اللّٰہِ ((نَعَمْ )) قَالَتْ :
فَخَرَجْتُ حَتّٰی اِذَا کُنْتُ فِی الْحُجْرَۃِ اَوْ فِی الْمَسْجِدِ دَعَانِیْ اَوْ اَمَرَ بِیْ فَدُعِیَتُ لَہٗ فَقَالَ کَیْفَ ؟ قُلْتِ : فَردَدْتُ عَلَیْہِ الْقِصَّۃَ الَّتِیْ ذکَرْتُ مِنْ شَأْنِ زَوْجِیْ ، قَالَتْ : فَقَالَ ((امْکُثِیْ فِیْ بَیْتِکِ حَتّٰی یَبْلُغَ الْکِتَابَ اَجَلُہٗ )) قَالَتْ : فَاعْتَدَدْتُ فِیْہِ اَرْبَعَۃَ اَشْہُرٍ وَّ عَشْرًا قَالَتْ : فَلَمَّا کَانَ عُثْمَانُ بْنُ عَفَّانَ   رضی اللّٰه عنہ   اَرْسَلَ اِلَیَّ فَسَأَلَنِیْ عَنْ ذٰلِکَ فَاَخْبَرْتُہٗ فَاتْبَعَہٗ وَ قَضٰی بِہٖ۔ رَوَاہُ اَبُوْدَاؤٗدَ[1]   (صحیح)

حضرت زینب بنت کعب بن عجرہ رضی اللہ عنہا سے روایت ہے کہ حضرت ابو سعید خدری رضی اللہ عنہ کی بہن فریعہ بنت مالک بن سنان رضی اللہ عنہ نے انہیں بتایا کہ وہ رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم کے پاس آئی اور پوچھا ’’کیا وہ بنی خدرہ میں اپنے گھر جا سکتی ہے؟ کیونکہ میرے خاوند کے غلام بھاگ گئے ہیں وہ انہیں ڈھونڈنے نکلے ، جب طرف قدوم (ایک مقام ہے مدینہ سے سات میل پر) پہنچے تو وہاں غلاموں کو پایا اور غلاموں نے میرے خاوند کو مار ڈالا ۔‘‘ چنانچہ میں نے رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم سے دریافت کیا ’’کیا میں اپنے گھر واپس چلی جاؤں کیونکہ میرا خاوند میرے لئے کوئی مکان یا خرچ وغیرہ چھوڑ کر نہیں مرا؟‘‘ حضرت فریعہ رضی اللہ عنہا کہتی ہیں ، رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم نے فرمایا ’’ہاں چلی جاؤ۔‘‘ حضرت فریعہ رضی اللہ عنہا کہتی ہیں کہ میں وہاں سے نکلی ، ابھی مسجد یا حجرہ میں ہی تھی تو نبی اکرم صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم نے مجھے بلا یا یا کسی کو بلانے کا حکم دیا اور مجھے بلا یاگیا ۔ آپ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم نے ارشاد فرمایا ’’تم نے کیا کہا تھا؟‘‘ میں نے ساری بات دوبارہ بیان کی جو میں نے اپنے شوہر کے متعلق کہی تھی۔ حضرت فریعہ رضی اللہ عنہا کہتی ہیں تب رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم نے فرمایا ’’اپنے گھر میںٹھہری رہو حتی کہ عدت پوری ہوجائے ۔‘‘ چنانچہ میں نے اس گھر میں چار ماہ دس دن پورے کئے ۔ حضرت فریعہ رضی اللہ عنہا کہتی ہیں ’’ جب حضرت عثمان بن عفان رضی اللہ عنہ خلیفہ بنے تو انہوں نے میرے پاس پیغام بھیجا اور مسئلہ دریافت کیا تو میں نے انہیں یہی بتایا اور انہوں نے اس کے مطابق فیصلہ کیا۔‘‘اسے ابوداؤد نے روایت کیا ہے۔

مسئلہ نمبر145:مفقود الخبر شوہر کی بیوی چار سال انتظار کرنے کے بعد عدت (چار ماہ دس دن) گزار کر دوسرا نکاح کر سکتی ہے۔

عَنْ سَعِیْدِ بْنِ الْمُسَیَّبِ   رضی اللّٰه عنہ   اَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ   رضی اللّٰه عنہ   قَالَ اَیُّمَا امْرَأَۃٍ فَقَدَتْ زَوْجَہَا فَلَمْ تَدْرِ أَیْنَ ہُوَ فَاِنَّہَا تَنْتَظِرُ اَرْبَعَ سِنِیْنَ ثُمَّ تَعْتَدُّ اَرْبَعَۃَ اَشْہُرٍ وَّ عَشْرًا ثُمَّ تَحِلُّ ۔ رَوَاہُ مَالِکٌ[2]

حضرت سعید بن مسیب رضی اللہ عنہ سے روایت ہے کہ حضرت عمر بن خطاب رضی اللہ عنہ نے مفقود الخبر شوہر والی عورت کے بارے میں فرمایا کہ وہ چار سال انتظار کرے اس کے بعد چار ماہ دس دن عدت گزار کر (چاہے تو) نکاح کر لے ۔ اسے مالک نے روایت کیا ہے۔

[1] مختصر صحیح مسلم ، للالبانی ، رقم الحدیث

 

 

REFERENCE:
BOOK: TALAQ KE MASAIYL BY IQBAL KEELANI

 

 

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